Shrimp farming

Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business that exists in a marine environment, producing shrimp or prawns [Note 1] (crustaceans of the Caridea or Dendrobranchiata groups ) for human consumption.

Marine

Commercial marine shrimp farming began in the 1970s, and was particularly developed to meet the demands of the United States , Japan , and Western Europe . The total production was more than 1.6 million tonnes in 2003, representing a value of nearly US $ 9 billion. About 75% of farmed shrimp is produced in Asia , particularly in China and Indonesia . The other 25% is produced mainly in Latin America , where Brazil , Ecuador , and Mexicoare the largest producers. The largest exporting nation is Indonesia.

Shrimp farming has changed from traditional, small-scale businesses in Southeast Asia into a global industry. Increased densities, and broodstock is shipped worldwide. Virtually all farmed shrimp are of the family Penaeidae , and just two species – Litopenaeus vannamei (Pacific white shrimp) and Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn) – account for Roughly 80% of all farmed shrimp. These industrial monocultures are very susceptible to diseases, which have caused several regional wipe-outs of farm shrimp populations. Increasing ecological problems, repeated disease outbreaks, and pressure and criticism from bothNGOs and consumer countries. In 1999, a program for developing and promoting sustainable farming practices, including governmental bodies, industry representatives, and environmental organizations.

Freshwater

A farmer constructing a shrimp farm in Pekalongan , Indonesia

Freshwater prawn farming shares, and many of the same problems as, marine shrimp farming . Unique problems are introduced by the developmental lifecycle of the main species (giant river prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii ). [1] The global annual production of freshwater prawns in 2010 was about 670,000 tons, of which China produced 615,000 tones (92%). [2]

Animal welfare

Main article: Eyestalk ablation

Eyestalk ablation is the removal of one (unilateral) or both (bilateral) eyestalks from a crustacean . It is routinely practiced on female shrimps (or prawns) in almost every marine shrimp maturation or reproduction facility in the world, both research and commercial . citation needed ] The aim of ablation under these circumstances is to encourage the female shrimp to develop mature ovaries and spawn . [3]

Most captive conditions for shrimp causes in vitro inhibitions that prevent them from developing mature ovaries. Even in conditions where a population is estimated to increase in size and to increase in size. Once females have been subjected to eyestalk ablation, complete ovarian development often ensues within 3 to 10 days.

See also

  • Bread in invertebrates

Footnotes

  1. Jump up^ The terminology may be confusing different types of differences between “shrimp” and “prawns”.

References

  1. Jump up^ New, MB: Farming Freshwater Prawns ; FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 428, 2002. ISSN 0429-9345.
  2. Jump up^ Data extracted from theFAO Global Aquaculture Production Databasefor freshwater crustaceans. As of October 2012, the most recent data sets are for 2010 and sometimes contain estimates. Accessed October 21, 2012.
  3. Jump up^ Uawisetwathana, U; Leelatanawit, R; Klanchui, A; Prommoon, J; Klinbunga, S; Karoonuthaisiri, N (September 7, 2011). “Insights into Eyestalk Ablation Mechanism to Induce Ovarian Maturation in the Black Tiger Shrimp” . PLOS ONE . 6 : e24427. doi : 10.1371 / journal.pone.0024427 . PMC  3168472  . PMID  21915325 .

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