phenoxyethanol

Phenoxyethanol is a germicidal and germistatic glycol ether , phenol ether , and aromatic alcohol often used together with quaternary ammonium compounds .

Use

Phenoxyethanol is used as a fixative perfume ; an insect repellent ; an antiseptic ; a solvent for cellulose acetate , dyes , inks , and resins ; a preservative for pharmaceuticals , cosmetics and lubricants ; an anesthetic in fish aquaculture; and in organic synthesis.

Phenoxyethanol is an alternative to formaldehyde-releasing preservatives . [4] In Japan and the EU, its concentration in cosmetics is restricted to 1%. [5]

Production

Phenoxyethanol is produced by the hydroxyethylation of phenol ( Williamson synthesis ), for example, in the presence of alkali-metal hydroxides or alkali-metal borohydrides. [1]

Efficacy

Phenoxyethanol is effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria , and the yeast Candida albicans . [6]

Effective concentration and contact time to kill germs with aromatic alcohols [7]
Aromatic alcohol Concentration,% Contact time, min
Escherichia coli Pseudomonas aeruginosa Proteus mirabilis Staphylococcus aureus
Benzyl alcohol 1 > 30 > 30 > 30 > 30
Phenethyl alcohol 1.25 2.5 2.5 2.5 > 30
2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 5
phenoxyethanol 1.25 15 2.5 2.5 > 30
2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 > 30

Safety

Phenoxyethanol is a vaccine preservative and potential allergen, which may result in a nodular reaction at the site of injection. [8] It reversibly inhibited NMDAR-mediated ion currents. [9]Ingestion may cause CNS and respiratory depression, vomiting and diarrhea in infants, especially when combined with chlorphenesin . [10]

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:b Helmut Fiege; Heinz-Werner Voges; Toshikazu Hamamoto; Sumio Umemura; Tadao Iwata; Hisaya Miki; Yasuhiro Fujita; Hans-Josef Buysch; Dorothea Garbe; Wilfried Paulus (2007), “Phenol Derivatives”, Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.), Wiley, doi : 10.1002 / 14356007.a19_313
  2. Jump up^ “Phenoxyethanol”, British Pharmacopoeia , 2 , 2009, ISBN  978-0-11-322799-0
  3. Jump up^ David R. Lide, ed. (2010), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (90th ed.), CRC Press
  4. Jump up^ Wineski LE, English AW (1989). “Phenoxyethanol as a nontoxic preservative in the dissection laboratory.” Acta Anat (Basel) . 136 (2): 155-8. doi : 10.1159 / 000146816 . PMID  2816264 .
  5. Jump up^ Tokunaga H, Takeuchi O, Ko R, Uchino T, Ando M (2003). “市販化粧水中のフェノキシエタノールおよびパラベン類の分析法に関する研究” [Studies for Analyzing phenoxyethanol and parabens in lotions shopping] (PDF) . Kokuritsu Iyakuhin Shokuhin Eisei Kenkyujo Hokoku (in Japanese) (121): 25-9. PMID  14740401 .
  6. Jump up^ Lowe I, Southern J (1994). “The antimicrobial activity of phenoxyethanol in vaccines”. Lett Appl Microbiol . 18 (2): 115-6. doi : 10.1111 / j.1472-765X.1994.tb00820.x . PMID  7764595 .
  7. Jump up^ Hans-P. Harke (2007), “Disinfectants”, Ullmann ‘s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry(7th ed.), Wiley, pp. 1-17, doi : 10.1002 / 14356007.a08_551
  8. Jump up^ MH Beck; SM Wilkinson (2010), “Contact Dermatitis: Allergic”, in Tony Burns; Stephen Breathnach; Neil Cox; Christopher Griffiths, Rook’s Textbook of Dermatology , 2 (8th ed.), Wiley-Blackwell, p. 26.46, ISBN  978-1-4051-6169-5
  9. Jump up^ Schmuck G, Steffens W, Bomhard E (July 2000). “2-Phenoxyethanol: a neurotoxicant?” Archives of Toxicology . 74 (4-5): 281-7. doi : 10.1007 / s002040000110 . PMID  10959804 .
  10. Jump up^ “FDA Warns Consumers Against Using Mommy’s Bliss Nipple Cream” .

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