Intensive animal farming

Intensive animal farming or industrial livestock production , which is colloquially known as a farming operation , is a production approach towards farm animals in order to maximize production output, while minimizing production costs. [1] Intensive farming Refers to animal husbandry , the keeping of livestock Such As cattle , poultry , and fish at Higher stocking densified than is usually the case with other forms of agriculture-animal practice is typical in industrial farming by agribusinesses . [2] [3] [4][5] [6] The main products of this industry are meat , milk and eggs for human consumption. [7] There are issues relating to whether or not farming is sustainable or ethical . [8]

Confinement at high stocking density is one of the most systematic approaches to the production of economics , modern machinery, biotechnology , and global trade . There are differences in the factory farming techniques are practiced around the world. There is a continuing debate over the benefits, the risks and ethical questions of factory farming. The issues include the efficiency of food production; animal welfare ; it is essential for feeding the growing global population ; and the environmental impact (eg agricultural pollution ) and health risks. [9] [10] [11]

History

The practice of industrial animal agriculture is a relatively recent development in the history of agriculture , and the result of scientific discoveries and technological advances. Innovations in agriculture beginning in the late 19th century parallel developments in mass production in other industries that characterized the latter part of the Industrial Revolution . The discovery of vitamins and their role in animal nutrition , in the first two decades of the twentieth century, led to vitamin supplements, which allowed chickens to be raised indoors. [12]The discovery of antibiotics and vaccinesfacilitated raising livestock in large numbers by reducing disease. Chemicals Developed for use in World War II gave rise to synthetic pesticides . Developments in shipping networks and technology have made long-distance distribution of agricultural produce possible.

Agricultural production across the world doubled between 1820 and 1975 (1820 to 1920, 1920 to 1950, 1950 to 1965, and 1965 to 1975) to feed a global population of one billion human beings in 1800 and 6.5 billion in 2002. [13 ] : 29 During the same period, the number of people involved in farming dropped as the process became more automated. In the 1930s, 24 percent of the American population worked in agriculture compared to 1.5 percent in 2002; in 1940, each worker supplied 11 consumers, whereas in 2002, each worker supplied 90 consumers. [13] : 29

According to the BBC , the era of farming in Britain began in 1947 when a new agriculture Act introduced subsidies to farmers to encourage greater output by introducing new technology, in order to reduce Britain’s reliance on imported meat. The United Nations writes that “intensification of animal production is seen as a way of providing food security.” [14] In 1966, the United States, United Kingdom and other industrialized nations, began manufacturing farms of beef and dairy cattle and domestic pigs. [15] From its American and West European heartland farming is becoming globalized in the later years of the 20th century and is still expanding and replacing traditional practices of stock rearing in an increasing number of countries. [15]In 1990 factory farming accounted for 30% of world meat production and by 2005 this had risen to 40%. [15]

Contemporary animal production

Factory farms hold large numbers of animals, typically cows, pigs, turkeys, or chickens, often indoors, typically at high densities. The aim of the operation is to produce large quantities of meat, eggs, or milk at the lowest possible cost. Food is supplied in place. Disinfectants, antimicrobial agents, anthelmintics, hormones and vaccines; protein, mineral and vitamin supplements; frequent health inspections; biosecurity; climate-controlled facilities and other measures. Physical restraints, eg fences or creeps, are used to control movement or actions regarded as undesirable. Breeding programs are used to produce a food product. [18]

Intensive production of livestock and poultry is widespread in developed nations . For 2002-2003, FAO Estimates of Industrial Production as a percentage of global output Were 7 percent for beef and veal, 0.8 percent for sheep and goat meat, pork 42 percent for, and 67 percent for poultry meat. The production is estimated to be 39 percent of the total production of these meats and 50 percent of total egg production. [19] In the US, according to its National Pork Producers Council, 80 million of its 95 million pigs are slaughtered each year. [13] : 29

Chickens

In the United States, chickens were primarily raised on family farms, 1965. Originally, the primary value in poultry was eggs, and meat was considered byproduct of egg production. citation needed ] It was expensive, and poultry was expensive. Except in hot weather, eggs can be shipped and stored without refrigeration for some time before going bad; this was important in the days before widespread refrigeration.

Farm flocks tend to be small because they are largely fed by foraging, with some supplementation of grain, scraps, and waste products from other farm ventures. These feedstuffs were in limited supply, especially in the winter, and this size of the farm flocks. Soon after poultry keeping the attention of agricultural researchers (around 1896), improvements in nutrition and management made poultry keeping more profitable and businesslike.

Prior to about 1910, chicken was served mainly on special occasions or Sunday dinner. Poultry was shipped live or killed, plucked, and packed on ice (but not eviscerated). The “whole, ready-to-cook broiler” was not popular until the 1950s, when end-to-end refrigeration and sanitary practices. Before this, poultry were often cleaned by the neighborhood butcher, although cleaning was commonplace kitchen skill.

Two kinds of poultry were used: broilers or “spring chickens”; Young male chickens, a byproduct of the egg industry, which were sold when still young and tender (usually under 3 pounds live weight), and “stewing hens”, also a byproduct of the egg industry, which were old hens past their prime for laying. [20]

The major milestone in 20th century poultry production was the discovery of vitamin D, which made it possible to keep chickens in year-round confinement. Before this, chickens did not thrive during the winter (due to lack of sunlight), and egg production, incubation, and meat production in the off-season were all very difficult, making poultry a seasonal and expensive proposal. Year-round production costs, especially for broilers.

At the same time, egg production has been increased by scientific breeding. After a few false starts, the success was shown by Professor Dryden at the Oregon Experiment Station. [21]

Improvements in production and quality are accompanied by lower labor requirements. In the 1930s through the early 1950s, 1,500 hens was considered to be a full-time job for a farm family. In the late 1950s, the eggs of the dead were so dramatically that the farmers typically kept the birds in their hands, putting them on their own, or having a single-bird cage or converting their floor-confinement houses to a single deck of roosts to triple- decker roosts. Not long after this, and still more.

Robert Plamondon [22] reports that the last family farm in Oregon, Rex Farms, had 30,000 layers and survived into the 1990s. But the standard is around 125,000 hens.

This fall in profitability is accompanied by a general introduction to the consumer, allowing poultry and eggs to lose their status as luxury foods.

The vertical integration of the egg and poultry industries was a late development, subject to the development of modern techniques, the adoption of the Cornish Cross broiler, the use of the cages , etc.).

By the late 1950s, poultry production had changed dramatically. Large farms and packing plants could grow birds by the tens of thousands. Chickens could be sent to slaughterhouses for butchering and processing into prepackaged products. Meat-type chickens currently growing up in six to seven weeks [23] This is due to genetic selection and nutritional changes (but not the use of growth hormones, which are illegal for use in poultry in the US and many other countries). Once a meat consumed only occasionally, the common availability and low cost Growing concerns over thecholesterol glad of red meat in the 1980s and 1990s resulted in further Top Increased consumption of chicken.

Today, eggs are produced on a wide range of ranches. Chickens are exposed to artificial light cycles to stimulate production year-round production. In addition, it is a common practice to reduce the size and quantity of food products.

On average, one chicken on one day, but not on every day of the year. This varies with the breed and time of year. In 1900, average egg production was 83 eggs per hen per year. In 2000, it was well over 300. In the United States, laying hens are butchered after their second egg laying season. In Europe, they are the butchered after a single season. 18-20 weeks old (depending on breed and season). Males of the egg-type breeds have little commercial value at any age, and all those not used for breeding (nearly fifty percent of all-egg-type chickens) are killed soon after hatching. The old hens also have little commercial value. Thus, the main sources of chicken meat 100 years ago (spring chickens and stewing hens) have both been entirely supplanted by meat-type broiler chickens.

Some believe that the “deadly H5N1 strain of bird flu is essentially a problem of industrial poultry practices”. [24] [25] [26] On the other hand, according to the CDC article H5N1 Outbreaks and Enzootic Influenza by Robert G. Webster et al .:

Transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1 from domestic poultry to migratory waterfowl in western China has increased the geographic spread. The spread of H5N1 and its potential reintroduction to domestic poultry increases the need for good agricultural vaccines. In fact, the root cause of the continuing H5N1 pandemic threat may be the pathogenicity of H5N1 viruses is caused by cocirculating influenza viruses or bad agricultural vaccines. [27]

Webster explains:

If you use a good vaccine you can prevent the transmission within poultry and humans. But if they have been vaccinated now [in China] for several years, why is there so much flu bird? There is bad vaccine that stops the disease in the bird and the bird goes on pooping out and it changes it. And I think this is what is going on in China. It has to be. Either there is not enough vaccine being used. Probably both. It’s not just China. We can not blame China for substandard vaccines. I think there are substandard vaccines for influenza in poultry all over the world. [28]

In response to the same, Reuters reports Hong Kong infectious disease expert Lo Wing-lok saying that “The issue of vaccines has to take top priority”, and Julie Hall, in charge of the WHO’s outbreak response in China, saying that China’s vaccinations could be “masking” the virus. [29] The BBC reported that Wendy Barclay, a virologist at the University of Reading , UK, said:

The Chinese have made a vaccine based on H5N1 antigens, and they have been using it. There’s been a lot of criticism of what they have done, because they have protected their chickens against this virus but the chickens still get infected; and then you get drifting – the virus is in a state of flux – and we have a situation where we have five or six flavors of H5N1 out there. [30]

Keeping wild birds away from domestic birds is known to be key in the fight against H5N1. Caging (no free range poultry) is one way. Providing Wild Birds with Restored Wetlands so they will naturally choose notlivestock areas. Political forces are based on the selection of one, the other, or both based on nonscientific reasons. [31]

Pigs

Intensive Piggeries (or hog lots) are a type of concentrated animal feeding operation specialized for the breeding of domestic pigs up to slaughterweight. In this system of pig production growers are housed indoors in group-housing or straw-lined sheds, while pregnant women are confined in sow stalls ( gestation crates ) and give birth in farrowing crates.

The use of sow stalls (gestation crates) has resulted in increased welfare costs. Many of the world’s largest producers of pigs ( US and Canada ) use these sites, but some nations (eg the UK ) and some US states (eg Florida and Arizona ) have banned them.

Intensive Piggeries are the wide warehouse-like buildings. Indoor pig systems allow the pig’s condition to be monitored, ensuring minimum fatalities and increased productivity. Buildings are ventilated and their temperature regulated. Most domestic pigs are susceptible to heat stress, and all pigs lack sweatshirts and can not cool themselves. Pigs have a limited tolerance to high temperatures and heat stress can lead to death. Maintaining a more specific temperature within the pig-tolerance range also maximizes growth and growth to feed ratio. In an intensive operation pigs will lack access to a wallow (mud), which is their natural cooling mechanism. Intensive piggery control temperature through ventilation or drip water systems.

Pigs are naturally omnivorous and combined with grain and protein sources (soybeans, or meat and bone meal ). Larger intensive pig farms may be surrounded by farmland where feed-grain crops are grown. Alternatively, piggeries are connecting on the grains industry. Pig feed can be bought packaged or mixed on-site. The intensive piggery system, where pigs are confined in individual stalls, allows each pig to be allotted a portion of feed. The individual feeding system also facilitates individual medication of pigs through feed. This has increased the importance of intensive farming methods. To prevent disease spreading and encourage growth, such as antibiotics , vitamins, hormones and other supplements are preemptively administered.

Indoor systems, especially stalls and pens (eg ‘dry,’ not straw-lined systems) In an indoor intensive pig farm, manure can be managed through a lagoon system or other waste-management system. However, odor remains a problem which is difficult to manage.

The way animals are housed in intensive systems varies. Breeding sows will spend the bulk of their time in sow stalls (also called gestation crates) during pregnancy or farrowing crates, with litter, until market.

Piglets often receive range of treatments including castration, tail docking to reduce tail biting, teeth clipping and their ears notched to assist identification. Treatments are usually made without bread killers. Weak runts may be slain shortly after birth.

Piglets can also be taken from the sows and between two and five weeks old [2] and placed in sheds. However, grower pigs – which includes the bulk of the herd – are usually housed in alternative indoor housing, such as batch thinking. During pregnancy, the use of facilitates feed-management and growth control. It also prevents pig aggression (eg tail biting, ear biting, vulva biting, food stealing). Group requires higher stockmanship skills. Such pens will usually not contain straw or other material. Alternatively, a straw-lined shed may be a larger group (ie not batched) in age groups.

Many countries have introduced laws to regulate the treatment of animals. In the US, the federal Humane Slaughter Act [3] requires pigs to be stunned before slaughter, ALTHOUGH compliance and enforcement is Questioned citation needed ] . [4] .

Cattle

Main article: Cattle

Cattle are domesticated ungulates , a member of the family Bovidae , in the subfamily Bovinae , and descended from the aurochs ( Bos primigenius ). [32] They are raised as livestock for meat (called Expired beef and veal ), dairy products (milk), leather and as draft draft animals (pulling carts , plows and the like). In some countries, such as India , they are honored in religious ceremonies and revered. As of 2009-2010 it is estimated that there are 1.3-1.4 billion head of cattle in the world. [33][34]

Cattle are raised by Often Allowing herds to graze on the fat of wide tracts of rangeland called Expired ranches . Raising cattle in this manner can be used for growing crops. The most common interactions with cattle involved daily feeding , cleaning and milking . Many routine husbandry practices involve ear tagging , dehorning , loading, medical operations , vaccinations and hoof care, as well as training for agricultural shows and preparations. There are also some differences in working with cattle – Fulani men restechnical behavioral , whereas in Europe cattle are controlled by physical means clustering Primarily like fences . [35]

Once a year, they are about 650 pounds (290 kg), they are fed to a feedlot to be fed to a specialized feed, which is derived from ethanol production, barley, and other grains. as well as alfalfa and cottonseed meal . The feed contains premixes composed of micro-nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, chemical preservatives, antibiotics, fermentation products, and other essential ingredients, which are usually prepared by the industry, for blending into commercial rations. Because of the availability of these products, a farmer using their own grain can formulate their own rations and be assured the animals are getting the recommended levels of minerals and vitamins. Cattle in the UK are mostly grass fed with the occasional extra such as a mineral lick or feed. [36]

Breeders can use cattle to reduce M. bovis infection susceptibility by selective breeding and maintaining herd health to avoid concurrent disease. [37] Cattle are farmed for beef, veal, dairy, and they are sometimes used to maintain grassland for wildlife – for example, in Epping Forest , England. They are often used in some of the most wild places for livestock. Depending on the breed, cattle can survive on hill grazing, heaths, marshes, moors and semi desert. Modern breeds are more versatile and less versatile. For this reason many smaller farmers still favor old breeds, such as the dairy breed of Jersey cattle .

There are many potential impacts on the human health of the modern cattle industrial agriculture system. There are concerns about the antibiotics and growth hormones used, increased E. coli contamination, higher saturated fat content in the meat because of the feed, and also environmental concerns. [38]

As of 2010, in the US 766,350 producers participate in raising beef. The beef industry is segmented with the bulk of the producer. Beef calves are raised in small herds, with over 90% of the herds having less than 100 head of cattle. Fewer producteurs Participate in the finishing stage qui Often OCCURS in a feedlot , goal nonetheless there are 82.170 feedlots in the United States. [39]

Aquaculture

Main article: Aquaculture

Aquaculture is the cultivation of the natural produce of water (fish, shellfish , algae and other aquatic organisms). The term is distinguished by the idea of ​​active human endeavor in increasing the number of organizations involved, as opposed to simply taking them out of the wild. Subsets of aquaculture include Mariculture (aquaculture in the ocean); Algiculture (the production of kelp / seaweed and other algae ); Fish farming (raising of catfish , tilapia and milkfish in freshwater and brackish ponds or salmonin marine ponds); and the growing of cultured pearls . Extensive aquaculture is based on local photosynthetic production while intensive aquaculture is based on fish fed with an external food supply.

Aquaculture has been used since ancient times and can be found in many cultures. Aquaculture was used in China c. 2500 BC. When the waters were reduced after river floods, some fishes, and most carp , were held in artificial lakes. Their broods were fed by nymphs and silkworms , while the fish were consumed as a source of protein . The Hawaiian people practiced aquaculture by constructing fish ponds (see Hawaiian aquaculture ). A remarkable example of ancient Hawaii is the construction of a fish pond, dating from at least 1,000 years ago, at Alekoko . [40]The Japanese practiced cultivation of seaweed by providing bamboo poles and, later, nets and oyster shells to serve as anchoring surfaces for spores . The Romans often bred fish in ponds.

The practice of aquaculture in Europe during the Middle Ages , since fish were scarce and thus expensive. However, improvements in transportation during the 19th century, and inprivileged areas. The first North American fish hatchery was constructed on Dildo Island , Newfoundland Canada in 1889, it was the largest and most advanced in the world.

Americans have been involved in the culture of the late 20th century, but 1900, later even producing a wartime resource. (Peter Neushul, Seaweed for War: California’s World War I Industry, Technology and Culture 30 (July 1989), 561-583)

In contrast to agriculture, the rise of aquaculture is a contemporary phenomenon. According to Professor Carlos M. Duarte about 430 (97%) of the aquatic species presently in culture of the 20th century, and an estimated 106 aquatic species have been domesticated over the past decade. The domestication of an aquatic species usually involves a decade of scientific research. Current success in the domestication of aquatic species results from the 20th century rise of knowledge on the basic biology of aquatic species and the lessons learned from past success and failure. The stagnation in the world’s fisheries and overexploitation of 20 to 30% of marine fish species provided with additional impetus to domesticate marine species, just as overexploitation of land animals provided the impetus for the early domestication of land species.

In the 1960s, the price of fish began to climb, as well as to catch fish. Today, commercial aquaculture exists on an unprecedented, huge scale. In the 1980s, open-netcage salmon farming also expanded; This particular type of aquaculture is a minor part of the production of finfish worldwide, but possible negative impacts on wild stocks, which have come into question since the late 1990s, have caused it to become a major cause of controversy. [41]

In 2003, the total world production of fisheries was 132.2 million tonnes of which aquaculture contributed 41.9 million tonnes or about 31% of the total world production. The growth rate of worldwide aquaculture is very rapid (greater than 10% per year for MOST species) while the contribution to the total from wild fisheries has-been Essentially flat for the last decade.

In the US, approximately 90% of all shrimp consumed are farmed and imported. [42] In recent years, aquaculture has grown in southern Chile , especially in Puerto Montt and Quellón , Chile’s fastest-growing city.

Farmed fish are kept in concentrations never seen in the wild, eg 50,000 fish in a 2-acre (8,100 m 2 ) area, [43] with each fish occupying less than the average bathtub. This can cause several forms of pollution. Packed tightly, on each other and the sides of their cages, damaging their ends and becoming sickened with various diseases and infections. [44]

Atlantic salmon specifically. [45] Such parasites may have an effect on nearby wild fish. Reasons for thesis, aquaculture operators frequently need to use strong drugs to keep the fish alive (goal Many fish still die prematurely at rates of up to 30% [46] ) and thesis Inevitably drugs enter the environment.

Lice and pathogen problems of the 1990s facilitated the development of current treatment methods for sea lice and pathogens. These situations reduce the stress from parasite / pathogen problems. However, being in an ocean environment, the transfer of diseases of the fish is an ever-present risk factor. [47]

The very large number of fish kept a long time in a single location produces a significant amount of condensed feces, often contaminated with drugs, which again affects local waterways. However, these effects may be present at the local fish farm site and may be minimal to non-measurable in high current sites. quote needed ]

Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture

Main article: Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture

Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) is a practice in which the by-products are processed to become ( fertilizers , food) for another. Fed aquaculture (eg fish, shrimp ) is combined with extractive inorganic (eg seaweed ) and extractive organic (eg shellfish ) aquaculture to create balanced systems for environmental sustainability (biomitigation), economic stability (product diversification and risk reduction) and social acceptability (better management practices). [48]

“Multi-trophic” refers to the incorporation of species from different trophic or nutritional levels into the same system. [49] This is one potential distinction from the age-old practice of aquatic polyculture , which could simply be the co-culture of different fish species from the same trophic level. In this case, these organisms may all share the same biological and chemical processes, with few synergistic benefits, which could potentially lead to significant shifts in the ecosystem . Some traditional polyculture systems may, in fact, incorporate a greater diversity of species, occupying several niches, as extensive cultures (low intensity, low management) within the same pond. The “Integrated” in IMTA refers to the more intensive cultivation of other species, connected by nutrient and energy transfer through water, but not necessarily right at the same location.

Ideally, the biological and chemical processes in an IMTA system should balance. This is achieved through the appropriate selection and proportion of different species. The co-cultured species should be more than just biofilters ; they should also be harvestable crops of commercial value. [49] A working IMTA system should result in greater production for the overall system, based on mutual benefits to the co-cultured species and improved ecosystem health , even if the individual production of some of the species is lower compared to what could be achieved in monoculture practices over a short term period. [50]

The term “integrated aquaculture” is used to describe the integration of monocultures through water transfer between organisms. [50] For all intents and purposes, however, the terms “IMTA” and “integrated aquaculture” differ primarily in their degree of descriptiveness. These terms are sometimes interchanged. Aquaponics , fractionated aquaculture, integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems (IAAS), integrated peri-urban-aquaculture systems (IPUAS), and integrated fisheries-aquaculture systems (IFAS) may also be considered variations of the IMTA concept.

Shrimp

Main article: Shrimp farm

A shrimp farm is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimp or prawns for human consumption. Commercial shrimp farming began in the 1970s, and was particularly developed to meet the demands of the US, Japan and Western Europe. The total production of farmed shrimp reached more than 1.6 million tonnes in 2003, representing a value of nearly 9 Billion US $. About 75% of farmed shrimp is produced in Asia, in particular in China and Thailand . The other 25% is produced mainly in Latin America, where Brazil is the largest producer. The largest exporting nation is Thailand.

Shrimp farming has moved from China to Southeast Asia into a meat packing industry. Increased densities, and broodstock is shipped worldwide. Penaeus vannamei (Pacific white shrimp) and the Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn) are all penaeids (ie, of the family Penaeidae ), and just two species of shrimp. These industrial monoculturesare very susceptible to diseases, which have caused several regional wipe-outs of farm shrimp populations. Increasing ecological problems, repeated disease outbreaks, and pressure and regulation of governments.

Regulation

Main article: Animal law

In various jurisdictions, intensive animal production of some species is subject to regulation for environmental protection. In the United States, a Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) has been approved and implemented for the management of nutrients, contaminants, wastewater, etc., as applicable, federal Clean Water Act. [51] [52]Some data on regulatory compliance and enforcement are available. In 2000, the US Environmental Protection Agency published 5-year and 1-year data on environmental performance of 32 industries, with data for the industry being derived from inspections of CAFOs. The data pertain to inspections and enforcement under the Clean Water Act, but also under the Clean Air Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Of the 32 industries, livestock production was among the top seven for environmental performance over the 5-year period, and was one of the top two in the final year of that period, where good environmental performance is indicated by a low ratio of enforcement to inspections. The five-year and final-year ratios of enforcement / inspections for the livestock industry were 0.05 and 0.01, respectively.[53] In Canada,. Examples include Intensive Livestock Operations (Saskatchewan), Confined Feeding Operations (Alberta), Feedlots (British Columbia), High-density Permanent Confinement Areas (Ontario) and Feedlots or Fattening Plants (Manitoba). In Canada, intensive animal production, such as other agricultural sectors, is also subject to various other federal and provincial requirements.

In the United States, the petitions of the animal welfare state . The 28-hour law, enacted in 1873 and amended in 1994. The law of the day, the law of the land, and the law of the land. The United States Department of Agriculture claims that the law does not apply to birds. The Humane Methods of Livestock Slaughter Act is similarly limited. Originally passed in 1958, the Act requires that livestock be brought into unconsciousness prior to slaughter. This Act also excludes birds, who make up more than 90 percent of the animals slaughtered for food, as well as rabbitsand fish. Individual states all have their own animal cruelty statutes; however, many countries have a standard agricultural practice. [54]

In the United States there is a growing movement to the worst abuses by regulating factory farming. In the United States of America animal welfare organizations reached a negotiated settlement with farm organizations in California. Proposed 2, Standards for Confining Farm Animals, was approved for use in 2008. [55] Regulations have been enacted in other states and plans are underway for referendum and lobbying campaigns in other states. [56]

An action plan has been proposed by the USDA in February 2009, called the Utilization of Manure and Other Agricultural and Industrial Byproducts. This program is designed to protect the environment and to improve human health and safety. In order for this to happen, several actions need to be taken and these four components include: • Maximizing the Value of Manure through Improved Collection, Storage, and Treatment Options • Utilizing Manure in Integrated Farming Systems to Improve Profitability and Protect Soil, Water, and Air Quality • Using Manure and Other Agricultural Byproducts as a Renewable Energy Source

In 2012 Australia’s largest supermarket chain, Coles, announced that as of January 1, 2013, they will stop selling company branded pork and eggs from animals kept in factory farms. The nation’s other dominant supermarket chain, Woolworths, has gone out of business. All of Woolworth’s house brands are now cage-free, and by mid-2013 all of their pork will come from farmers who operate stall-free farms. [57]

Controversies and criticisms

Advocates of factory farming claim That factory farming HAS led to the betterment of housing, nutrition, and disease control over the last twenty years, [58] while Opponents claim That it harms wildlife and the environment, [59] Creates Health Risks [64 ] abuses animals, [65] [66] and raises ethical issues. [67]

In the UK, the Farm Animal Welfare Council was set up by the government to act as an independent advisor on animal welfare in 1979 [68] and expresses its policy and freedoms: from hunger & thirst; from discomfort; from pain, injury or disease; to express normal behavior; from fear and distress.

There are differences around the world as to which practices are allowed and there is still a need for further regulation. For example, the EU is Bringing in further Top regulation to maximum set stocking densified for meat chickens by 2010, needs update ] Where the UK Animal Welfare Minister commented, “The welfare of meat chickens is a major concern to People Throughout The European Union. This agreement sends a strong message to the rest of the world that we care about animal welfare. ” [69]

Factory farming is greatly debated throughout Australia, with many people disagreeing with the methods and ways in which the animals are treated. Animals are often under stress. In their efforts to prevent injury, their beaks, tails and teeth are removed. [70] [71] Many piglets will have their teeth removed, because they are not used in these operations. Factory farms are a popular way to gain space, with these as chickens being kept in smaller spaces than an A4 page. [72]

For example, in the UK, de-beaking of chickens is deprecated , but it is recognized that it is a method of the last resort, as well as permitting and ultimately cannibalism. [73] Between 60 and 70 percent [74] of six million breeding sows in the US are confined during pregnancy, and for most of their adult lives, in 2 by 7 ft (0.61 by 2.13 m) gestation crates . [4] [75] According to pork producers and many veterinarians, they will fight if housed in pens. The largest pork producer in the US said in January 2007 that it will phase out gestation by 2017. [4] They are being phased out in the European Union, with a ban in 2013 after the fourth week of pregnancy. needs update? [76] With the evolution of farming, there has been a growing awareness of the issues among the public, not least due to the efforts of animal rights and welfare campaigners. [77] As a result, gestation crates, one of the most contentious practices, are the subject of laws in the US, [78] Europe [79] and around the world to phase out their use of a less confined practices.

Human health impact

According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Workers may develop and chronic lung disease, musculoskeletal injuries, and may catch infections that transmit from animals to human beings (such as tuberculosis). [80]

Pesticides are used to control harmful organisms [81] and they save farmers money by preventing product losses to pests. [82] In the US, about a quarter of pesticides used in houses, yards, parks, golf courses, and swimming pools [83] and about 70% are used in agriculture. [82] However, pesticides can make their way into consumers’ bodies which can cause health problems. One source of this is bioaccumulation in animals raised on factory farms. [83] [84] [85]

“Studies have been found to increase in respiratory, neurobehavioral, and mental illnesses among the residents of communities next to factory farms.” [86]

The CDC writes that chemical, bacterial, and viral compounds of water. Unpleasant odor, flies and adverse health effects. [51]

The CDC has identified a number of pollutants associated with the discharge of animals into rivers and lakes, and into the air. The use of antibiotics may create antibiotic-resistant pathogens; parasites, bacteria, and viruses may be spread; ammonia , nitrogen , and phosphorus ; hormones and hormones may cause hormone-related changes in fish; animal feed and feathers can provide nutrients to disease-causing micro-organisms; trace elements such as arsenic and copper , which are harmful to human health, may contaminate surface waters. [51]

Intensive farming can make the evolution and spread of harmful diseases easier. Many communicable animal diseases spread rapidly through densely spaced populations of animals and crowding makes genetic reassortment more likely. However, they are more likely to introduce bird diseases and more frequent association with people in the mix, as happened in the 2009 pandemic flu [87]

In the European Union , growth hormones are banned on the basis of a safe way of life. The UK has stated that in the event of the EU, it will only be possible to consider the introduction of specific hormones, on a case by case basis. [88] In 1998, the European Union banned feeding animals antibiotics that were found to be valuable for human health. Furthermore, in 2006 the European Union banned all drugs for livestock that were used for growth promotion purposes. As a result of these limitations, the levels of antibiotic resistance in animals and the population decreased. [89] [90]

The international trade in animal products increases the risk of global transmission of viral diseases such as swine fever , [91] BSE , foot and mouth and bird flu .

In the United States, the use of antibiotics in livestock is still prevalent. The FDA reports that 80 percent of all antibiotics were actually used in humans, and that these two types of antibiotics are similar to those in humans. Therefore, many of these drugs are effective in humans, and the total costs associated with drug-resistant bacterial infections in the United States are between $ 16.6 billion and $ 26 billion annually. [92]

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been identified in pigs and humans as MRSA for human infection. One study found that 20% of pig farmers in the United States and Canada in 2007 harbored MRSA . [93] A second study revealed that 81% of Dutch pigs had pigs with MRSA and 39% of animals had been infected with antimicrobials and were resistant to tetracycline . [94] A more recent study found that MRSA ST398 isolates were less susceptible to tiamulin , an antimicrobial used in agriculture, than other MRSA or methicillin susceptibleS. aureus . [95] Cases of MRSA have increased in livestock animals. CC398 is a new clone of MRSA that is highly active in animal production (mainly pigs, but also cattle and poultry), where it can be transmitted to humans. CC398 is often asymptomatic in food-producing animals. [96]

A 2011 nationwide study reported nearly half of the grocery stores – 47 percent – was contaminated with S. aureus, and more than half of those bacteria – 52 percent – were resistant to at least three classes of antibiotics. [97]Although staph should be killed with proper cooking, it may still pose a risk to consumers through food handling and cross-contamination in the kitchen. The senior author of the study said, “The fact that drug-resistant S. aureus was so prevalent, and likely came from the food animals themselves, is troubling, and demands attention to how antibiotics are used in food-animal production today.” [98]

In April 2009, the lawmakers in the Mexican state of Veracruz, a large-scale criminal case, said they were not present scientific evidence to support their claim. A swine flu qui Quickly killed more than 100 persons infected fait que area, Appears to-have Begun in the vicinity of a Smithfield subsidiary pig CAFO (Concentrated animal feeding operation). [99]

Environmental impact

Main articles: Environmental Impact of Meat Production and Cattle § Environmental_impact

Intensive factory farming has grown to become the biggest threat to the global environment through the loss of ecosystem services and global warming. [100] It is a major driver to global environmental degradation and biodiversityloss. [101] The process in which it is necessary to be grown up is only one of the most important methods of fertilizer and pesticides . Sometimes this results in the pollution of water, soil and air by agrochemicals and manure waste, and use of limited resources Such As water and energy at unsustainable rates. [102]

Industrial production of pigs and poultry is an important source of GHG emissions and is predicted to become more On intensive pig farms, the animals are kept on a concrete basis with slats or grates for the manure to drain through. The manure is usually stored in a slurry form (slurry is a liquid mixture of urine and feces). During storage on farm, slurry methane emissions and when manure is spread on fields it emits nitrous oxide and causes nitrogen pollution of land and water. Poultry manure from factory farms emits high levels of nitrous oxide and ammonia. [103]

Large quantities and concentrations of waste are produced. [104] Air quality and groundwater are at risk when animal waste is improperly recycled. [105]

Environmental impacts of factory farming include: [106]

  • Deforestation for animal feed production
  • Unsustainable pressure on land for high-protein / high-energy animal feed
  • Pesticide, herbicide and fertilizer manufacture and use for feed production
  • Unsustainable use of water for feed-crops, including groundwater extraction
  • Pollution of soil, water and nitrogen by fertilizer and fertilizer
  • Land degradation (reduced fertility, soil compaction, increased salinity, desertification)
  • Loss of biodiversity due to eutrophication , acidification, pesticides and herbicides
  • Worldwide reduction of genetic diversity of livestock and loss of traditional breeds
  • Species extinctions due to livestock-related habitat destruction (especially feed-cropping)

Labor

Small farmers are often involved in manufacturing operations, acting as contract growers for industrial facilities. In the case of poultry contract growers, farmers are required to make their property, buy them and buy them.

Research has shown that many immigrant workers in the United States receive information on the subject of animal health (CAFOs) in the United States. [107] Workers with limited English proficiency is significantly less likely to receive any work-related training, since it is often only provided. As a result, many workers do not perceive their jobs as dangerous. This causes inconsistent personal protective equipment (PPE), and can lead to workplace accidents and injuries. Immigrant workers are also less likely to report any workplace hazards and injuries.

Market concentration

81 percent of cows, 73 percent of sheep, 57 percent of pigs and 50 percent of chickens. This concentration can be used in a large scale to increase the size of a farmer’s business, maintain or remain in business. Factory farming May be no more beneficial to livestock producteurs than traditional farming Because It Appears to contribuer to overproduction That drives down prices. Through “forward contracts” and “marketing agreements”, meatpackers are able to set the price of livestock long before they are ready for production. [108]These strategies often cause farmers to lose money, as half of all family farming operations in 2007. [109]

In 1967, there were one million pig farms in America; as of 2002, there were 114,000. [13] : 29

Many of the nation’s livestock producers are producers of locally-grown livestock, which are highly vulnerable to disease. [110]

Demonstrations

Main article: We are fed up

From 2011 to 2014 each year between 15,000 and 30,000 people gathered under the theme We are fed up! in Berlin to protest against industrial livestock production. [111] [112] [113]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *