Fish farming

Fish farming gold fish farming involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures such as fish ponds , usually for food. It is the main form of aquaculture , while other methods may fall under mariculture . A facility that releases juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to supplement a species’ natural numbers is referred to as a fish hatchery . Worldwide, the most important fish species produced in fish farming are carp , tilapia , salmon , and catfish . [1]

Demand is increasing for fish and fish protein, which has resulted in widespread overfishing in wild fisheries . China provides 62% of the world’s farmed fish. [2] As of 2016, more than 50% of seafood was produced by aquaculture. [3]

Farming carnivorous fish , such as salmon, does not always reduce pressure on wild fisheries. Carnivorous farmed fish are usually fed fishmeal and fish oil Extracted from wild drilling fish . The 2008 global returns for fish farming recorded by the FAO totaled 33.8 million tonnes worth about US $ 60 billion. [4]

Major species

Top 15 Cultured fish species by weight in millions of tonnes, according to FAO statistics for 2013 [1]
Species Environment Tonnage (millions) Value ( US $ , billion)
Grass carp freshwater 5.23 6.69
Silver carp freshwater 4.59 6.13
Common carp freshwater 3.76 5.19
Nile tilapia freshwater 3.26 5.39
Bighead carp freshwater 2.90 3.72
Catla (Indian carp) freshwater 2.76 5.49
Crucian carp freshwater 2.45 2.67
Atlantic salmon Marine 2.07 10.10
Roho labeo freshwater 1.57 2.54
milkfish freshwater 0.94 1.71
Rainbow trout freshwater, brackish, marine 0.88 3.80
Wuchang bream freshwater 0.71 1.16
Black carp freshwater 0.50 1.15
Northern snakehead freshwater 0.48 0.59
Amur catfish freshwater 0.41 0.55
See also: List of commercially important fish species


Aquaculture makes use of local photosynthetic production (extensive) or fish that are fed with external food supply (intensive).

Extensive aquaculture

Growth is limited by available food, commonly zooplankton feeding on pelagic algae or benthic animals, such as crustaceans and mollusks . Tilapia filter feed directly on phytoplankton , which makes higher production possible. Photosynthetic production can be increased by fertilizing pond water with artificial fertilizer mixtures, such as potash , phosphorus , nitrogen , and microelements.

Another issue is the risk of algal blooms . Optimal nutrient supply and optimum sunlight are available for algal growth, multiply at an exponential rate, and eventually The decaying of algal biomass depletes the oxygen in the pond water because it blocks out and pollutes it with organic and inorganic solutes (such as ammonium ions), which can (and frequently do) lead to massive loss of fish.

An alternate option is to use a wetland system, such as that of Veta la Palma in Spain.

To be used as a source of food in the pond, the fish-eating species in the pond, eg, to such a tilapia, to a benthic feeder such as carp [catfish, and a zooplankton feeder (various carps) gold submerged weeds feeder such as grass carp .

Despite these limitations, these fish farming methods use these methods. In the Czech Republic , thousands of natural and semi-natural ponds are harvested each year for trout and carp. The large ponds around Trebon built from around 1650 are still in use. quote needed ]

Intensive aquaculture

Optimal water parameters for cold and warm-water fish in intensive aquaculture [5]
acidity pH 6-9
Arsenic <440 μg / l
Alkalinity > 20 mg / l (as CaCO 3 )
aluminum <0.075 mg / l
Ammonia (non-ionized) <O.O2mg / l
Cadmium <0.0005 mg / l in soft water ;
<0.005 mg / L in hard water
Calcium > 5 mg / l
Carbon dioxide <5-10 mg / l
chloride > 4.0 mg / l
Chlorine <0.003 mg / l
Copper <0.0006 mg / l in soft water;
<0.03 mg / l in hard water
Gas supersaturation <100% total gas pressure
(103% for salmonid eggs / fry)
(102% for lake trout)
Sulfide hydrogen <0.003 mg / l
Iron <0.1 mg / l
lead <0.02 mg / l
Mercury <0.0002 mg / l
Nitrate <1.0 mg / l
Nitrite <0.1 mg / l
Oxygen 6 mg / l for coldwater fish
4 mg / l for warmwater fish
Selenium <0.01 mg / l
Total dissolved solids <200 mg / l
Total suspended solids <80 NTU over ambient levels
Zinc <0.005 mg / l

These types of systems can be produced as long as sufficient oxygen , fresh water and food are provided. Because of the requirement of sufficient fresh water, a massive water purification system must be integrated into the fish farm. One way to achieve this is to combine hydroponic horticulture and water treatment , see below. The exception to this rule are cages which are placed in a river or sea, which supplements the fish crop with sufficient oxygenated water. Some environmentalists object to this practice.

The cost of inputs for fish farming is higher than that of farmers, especially because of the high cost of fish feed . It must contain a much higher level of protein (up to 60%) than cattle feed and a balanced amino acid composition, as well. These higher protein conversion rates [FCR], which is, kg of feed per kg of animal produced). Fish such as salmon have an FCR around 1.1 kg of feed per kg of salmon [6]chickens are in the 2.5 kg of feed per kg of chicken range. Fish to keep warm, eliminating some carbohydrates and fats in the diet, required to provide this energy. This may be offset, though, by the higher land costs and the higher production which can be obtained from the high level of input control.

Aeration of the water is essential This is achieved by bubbling, cascade flow, or aqueous oxygen. Clarias spp. can breathe atmospheric air and can Tolerate much Higher levels of pollutants than trout or salmon, qui Makes ventilation and water purification less Makes Necessary and Clarias species Especially suited for intensive fish production. In some Clarias farms, about 10% of water volume can consist of fish biomass .

The fungi ( Saprolegnia spp.), Intestinal worms (such as nematodes or trematodes ), bacteria (eg, Yersinia spp., Pseudomonasspp.), And protozoa (such as dinoflagellates ) are similar to that in animal husbandry, especially at high population densities. However, animal husbandry is a larger and more technologically mature area of ​​human nutrition. Intensity of water quality (oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, etc.) levels to minimize stress on the fish. This requirement makes control of the pathogen problem more difficult. Intensive aquaculture requires tight monitoring and a high level of expertise of the fish farmer.

Very-high-intensity recycle aquaculture systems (RAS), where all the parameters are controlled, are used for high-value species. By recycling water, little is used per unit of production. However, the process has high capital and operating costs. The higher cost structures that are economically important for high-value products, such as broodstock for egg production, fingerlings for net pen aquaculture operations, sturgeon production, research animals, and some special niche markets such as live fish. [7] [8]

Rational ornamental coldwater fish ( goldfish or koi ), which has been successfully carried out only in the 21st century. The increased incidences of dangerous viral diseases of koi carp, together with the high value of the fish, has led to initiatives in closed-system breeding and growing in a number of countries. Today, a few commercially successful intensive koi-growing facilities are operating in the UK, Germany, and Israel.

Some producers have adapted their intensive systems to providing

In 2016, juvenile Nile tilapia were given a food containing dried Schizochytrium in place of fish oil . Increased body weight gain and better food-to-growth conversion, plus their flesh was higher in healthy omega-3 fatty acids . [9] [10]

Fish farms

Within intensive and extensive aquaculture methods, many specific types of fish farms are used; each has benefits and applications unique to its design.

Cage system

Fish cages are placed in lakes, bayous, ponds, rivers, or oceans to contain and protect fish until they can be harvested. [11] The method is also called “off-shore cultivation” [12] when the cages are placed in the sea. They can be made of a wide variety of components. Fish are stocked in cages, artificially fed, and harvested when they reach market size. A few advantages of fish farming with cages are that many types of waters can be used (rivers, lakes, filled quarries, etc.), many types of fish can be raised, and fish farming can co-exist with sport fishing and other water uses. [11]

Cage farming of fishes in open seas is also gaining popularity. Given the concerns of disease, poaching, poor water quality, etc., these are considered more simple to start and easier to manage. Also, past occurrences of cage-failures leading to escapes, have raised concern regarding the culture of non-native fish species in dam or open-water cages. On August 22, 2017, there was a massive failure of such cages at a commercial fishery in Washington State in Puget Sound , leading to the release of nearly 300,000 Atlantic salmon in non-native waters. Pacific salmon species. [13]

Though the cage-industry has made new advances in recent years, the risk of damage and escape is still a concern. [11]

Main article: Copper alloys in aquaculture

Recently, copper alloys have become important netting materials in aquaculture . Copper alloys are antimicrobial , that is, they destroy bacteria , viruses , fungi , algae , and other microbes . In the marine environment , the antimicrobial / algaecidal properties of copper alloys prevent biofouling , which can be described as undesirable accumulation, adhesion, and growth of microorganisms, plants, algae , tube worms , barnacles , mollusks , and other organisms. [14]

The resistance of organism growth on copper alloys also provides a cleaner and healthier environment for growing fish to grow and thrive. Traditional netting involves regular and labor-intensive cleaning. In addition to its antifouling benefits, it has strong structural and corrosion-resistant properties in marine environments.

Copper-zinc brass alloys are deployed in commercial-scale aquaculture operations in Asia, South America, and the USA (Hawaii). Extensive research, including demonstrations and trials, are being implemented on two other copper alloys: copper-nickel and copper-silicon. Each of these types has an inherent ability to reduce biofouling, cage waste, disease, and the need for antibiotics, while controlling water circulation and oxygen requirements. Other types of copper alloys are also being considered for research and development in aquaculture operations.

Irrigation ditch or pond systems

These use irrigation ditches or farm ponds to raise fish. The basic requirement is to have a lot of water in the water, possibly with an above-ground irrigation system.

Using this method, water allotments can be stored in ponds or ditches, usually lined with bentonite clay. In small systems, the fish are often fed, and their products can help fertilize the fields. In larger ponds, the pond grows water plants and algae as fish food. Some of the most successful ponds grow strains of plants, strains of fish.

Control of water quality is crucial. Fertilizing, clarifying, and pH control of the water can increase significantly, as long as eutrophication is possible and oxygen levels stay high. Yields can be low if the fish grow ill from electrolyte stress.

Composite fish culture

The composite fish culture system was developed in India by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research in the 1970s. In this system, of both local and imported fish, a combination of five or six fish species is used in a single fish pond. These species are selected so that they do not compete for food by having different types of food habitats. [15] [16] As a result, the food in all parts of the pond is used. Fish used in this system include catla and silver carp which are surface feeder, rohu , a feeder, mrigal and common carp, which are bottom feeders. Other fish also feed on the excreta of the common carp, and this helps in the production of the optimal conditions of the product produces 3000-6000 kg of fish per hectare per year.

One problem with such composite fish culture is that many of these fish breed only during monsoon. Even if fish are collected from the wild, they can be mixed with other species, as well. So, a major problem in fish farming is the lack of availability of good-quality stock. To overcome this problem, these ways have been worked out by using hormonal stimulation. This is the supply of pure fish stock in desired quantities.

Integrated recycling systems

One of the largest problems with freshwater fish farming is that it can use a million gallons of water per acre (about 1 cubic meter of water per square meter) each year. Extended water purification systems allow for the reuse ( recycling ) of local water.

The largest-scale pure fish farms was systematically derived from the New Alchemy Institute in the 1970s. Basically, large plastic fish tanks are placed in a greenhouse. A hydroponic bed is placed near, above or between them. When tilapia are raised in the tanks, they are able to eat algae, which naturally grow in the tanks when the tanks are properly fertilized. quote needed ]

The water tank is slowly circulated to the hydroponic beds, where the tilapia waste feeds commercial plant crops. Carefully cultured microorganisms in the hydroponic bed convert ammonia to nitrates , and the plants are fertilized by nitrates and phosphates . Other media are strained by the hydroponic media, which doubles as an aerated pebble-bed filter. quote needed ]

This system, properly tuned, produces more protein than any other product. A wide variety of plants can grow in the hydroponic beds. Most growers concentrate on herbs (eg parsley and basil), which year. The most common customers are wholesalers restaurant . quote needed ]

Since the system lives in a greenhouse , it adapts to almost all climates, and may also adapt to tropical climates . The main environmental impact is in order to keep the fish electrolyte balance. Current growers use a variety of proprietary tricks to keep fish. Some veterinary authorities speculate that ultraviolet ozone disinfectant systems (widely used for ornamental fish) may play a role in keeping the tilapia healthy with recirculated water.

A number of large, well-capitalized ventures in this area have failed. Managing both the biology and markets is complicated. A future development is the combination of integrated recycling systems by the Greenfish Initiative . [17] [18]

Classic fry farming

This is also called a “flow through system” [19] Trout and other sport is often raised from eggs to fry or fingerlings and then trucked to streams and released. Normally, the fry are raised in long, shallow, concrete tanks, fed with fresh stream water. The fry receive commercial fish in pellets. While not as efficient as the New Alchemists’ method, it is also simpler, and has been used for many years to stock streams with sport fish. European eel ( Anguilla anguilla ) aquaculturalists provides a limited supply of glass eels, juvenile trainees of the European Sea of the Sea Sargassobreeding grounds, for their farms. The European eel is threatened with extinction because of the excessive catch of glass by Spanish fishermen and overfishing of adult eels in, eg, the Dutch IJsselmeer , Netherlands . As of 2005, no one has managed to breed the European eel in captivity. quote needed ]


See also: Aquaculture of salmon § Issues

The issue of fish farming has been a controversial one. Many cultured fishes (tilapia, carp, catfish, many others) require no meat or fish products in their diets. Top-level carnivores (most salmon species) depend on fish ( anchovies , menhaden , etc.). Vegetable-derived proteins in the diet of carnivorous fishes, but vegetable-derived oils have not been integrated into the diets of carnivores. Research is underway to try to change this, even though salmon and other carnivores could be successfully fed with vegetable products. The F3 Challenge (Fish-Free Feed Challenge), [20] explained by a report from Wiredin February 2017, “a lot of fish in the world of fish food, without the fish.” Earlier this month, start-ups from places like Pakistan, China, and Belgium joined their headquarters in Mountain View, CA , showing off feed made from seaweed extracts, yeast , and algae grown in bioreactors . ” [21] However, it will be some years before these efforts, if they succeed.

Secondly, farmed fish are kept in concentrations never seen in the wild (eg 50,000 fish in a 2-acre (8,100 m 2 ) area. [22] ). However, fish tends to be at high density. Most successful aquaculture species are schooling species, which do not have social problems at high density. Aquaculturists feel that operating a rearing system above its design capacity or the social density limit of the fish will result in reduced growth rate and increased feed conversion ratio(kg dry feed / kg of fish produced), which results in increased cost and risk of health problems along with a decrease in profits. Stressing the animals is not desirable, but the concept of and measurement of stress must be viewed from the perspective of the animal using the scientific method. [23]

Sea lice , particularly Lepeophtheirus salmonis and various Caligus species, including C. clemensi and C. rogercresseyi , can cause deadly infestations of both farm-grown and wild salmon. [24] [25] Sea lice are ectoparasites which feed on mucus, blood, and skin, and migrate to the skin of wild salmon during free-swimming, planktonic nauplii and copepodid larval stages, which can persist for several days. [26] [27] [28]Large numbers of highly populated, open-net salmon farms can exceptionally create large concentrations of sea lice; when exposed in river estuaries containing large numbers of open-net farms, many young wild salmon are infected, and do not survive as a result. [29] [30] Adult salmon can survive if critical, but small, thin-skinned juvenile salmon are highly vulnerable. On the Pacific coast of Canada , the louse-induced mortality of pink salmon in some areas is commonly over 80%. [31]

A 2008 meta-analysis of available data shows that salmon farming reduces the survival of associated wild salmon populations. This relationship has been shown for Atlantic, steelhead, pink, chum, and salmon coho. The decrease in survival or abundance often exceeds 50%. [32]

Diseases and parasites are the most commonly cited reasons for such decreases. Some species of sea lions have been noted to target farmed coho and Atlantic salmon. [33] Such parasites have been shown to have an effect on nearby wild fish. One place that has garnered international media attention is British Columbia’s Broughton Archipelago . There, juvenile wild salmon must “run a gauntlet” of large fish farms located off-shore near river outlets before making their way to sea. The farms allegedly cause such severe sea lice infestations that one study predicted in 2007 has 99% collapse in the wild salmon population by 2011. [34]This claim, however, has been criticized by many scientists as the issue of the correlation between increased fish farming and increases in infestation among wild salmon. [35]

Because of parasitic problems, some fishmongers keep you alive, but many fish still die prematurely at rates up to 30%. [36] In some cases, these drugs have entered the environment. In addition, the residual presence of these drugs has become controversial. Use of antibiotics in food production is thought to increase the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in human diseases. [37] At some facilities, the use of antibiotic drugs in aquaculture has decreased substantially due to vaccinations and other techniques. [38] However, most fish-farming operations still use antibiotics, many of which escape into the surrounding environment. [39]

The causes and pathogen problems of the 1990s, which reduces the stress of parasite / pathogen problems. However, being in an ocean environment, the transfer of diseases of the fish to the fish is an ever-present risk. [40]

The large number of fish kept long-term in a single location contributes to the destruction of the nearby areas. [41] The high concentrations of fish produce a significant amount of condensed faeces, often contaminated with drugs, which again affects local waterways. However, if the farm is in the same area, the pollutants are fairly quickly. Not only does this help with the problem of pollution, but it also helps to improve overall fish growth. Concern remains that resultant bacterial growth strips of the water of oxygen, reducing or killing off the local marine life. Once a region has been contaminated, the fish farms are moved to new, uncontaminated areas. This practice has angered nearby fishermen.[42]

Other potential problems faced by aquaculturists Are The Obtaining of various allowded and water-use rights, Profitability, Concerns about invasive species and genetic engineering DEPENDING you what species are Involved, and interaction with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea .

In view of genetically modified, farmed salmon, it was possible to decimate local fish populations, if released into the wild. Biologist Rick Howard [43] did a controlled laboratory study where wild fish and GMO fish were allowed to breed. The GMO fish crowded out the wild fish in spawning beds, but the offspring were less likely to survive. The dye used to make pen-raised salmon appear rosy like wild fish has been linked with retinal problems in humans. [42]


In 2005, Alaska passed the legislation requiring that the United States be labeled. [44] In 2006, a Consumer Reports investigation revealed that farm-raised salmon is frequently sold as wild. [45]

In 2008, the US National Organic Standards Board ( FDA) was released from the wild. This decision was criticized by the advocacy group Food & Water Watch as “bending the rules” about organic labeling. [46] In the European Union, fish labeling as a species, method of production and origin, has been required since 2002. [47]

Concerns continues over the labeling of salmon as farmed or wild-caught, as well as the humane treatment of farmed fish. The Marine Stewardship Council has established an ecotype label and a wild-caught salmon, [48] while the RSPCA has established the United States. [47]

Indoor fish farming

An alternative to outdoor open ocean cage aquaculture, is through the use of a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). A RAS is a series of culture tanks and filters where water is continually and optimally monitored. To prevent the deterioration of water quality, the water is treated mechanically through the removal of particulate matter and biologically through the conversion of harmful accumulated chemicals into nontoxic ones.

Other treatments such as ultraviolet sterilization, ozonation, and oxygen injection are also used to maintain optimal water quality. Through this system, many of the environmental drawbacks of aquaculture are minimized including escaped fish, water use, and the introduction of pollutants. The practices also improve the supply of water supply by providing optimum water quality. [49]

One of the drawbacks to recirculating aquaculture systems is the need for periodic water exchanges. However, the rate of water exchange can be reduced through aquaponics , such as the incorporation of hydroponically grown plants [50] and denitrification. [51] Both methods reduce the amount of nitrate in the water, and can potentially eliminate the need for water exchanges, closing the aquaculture system from the environment. The amount of interaction between the aquaculture system and the environment can be measured by the cumulative feed burden (CFB kg / M3), which measures the amount of feed that goes into the RAS relative to the amount of water and waste discharged.

From 2011, a team from the University of Waterloo led by Tahbit Chowdhury and Gordon Graff vertical survey RAS aquaculture designs aimed at producing protein-rich fish species. [52] [53] However, because of its high capital and operating costs, RAS has been maturing, larval rearing, fingerling production, research animal production, specific pathogen-free animal production, and caviar and ornamental. fish production. As such, research and design work by Chowdhury and Graff remains difficult to implement. RAS for other species is considered to be one of the few impractical, some limited successful implementation of RAS has occurred with high-value productbarramundi , sturgeon , tilapia and live in the US [54] eels and catfish in the Netherlands, trout in Denmark [55] and salmon is planned in Scotland [56] and Canada. [57]

Slaughter methods

Main article: Fish welfare at slaughter

Saturated tanks with carbon dioxide have been used to make fish unconscious. Their gills are then cut with a knife so that they are more processed. This is no longer a humane method of slaughter. This method is one of the most important methods of electrical and electrical engineering in Europe. [58]

Inhumane methods

According to T. Håstein of the National Veterinary Institute, “Different methods for slaughter of fish are in place and they can not be considered as an animal welfare point of view.” [59] A 2004 report by the EFSA Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare. are not doing so because operators do not have the knowledge to evaluate them. ” [60] Following are some of the humane ways of killing fish.

  • Air asphyxiation amounts to suffocation in the open air. The process can take upwards of 15 minutes to induce death, though unconsciousness typically sets in sooner. [61]
  • Ice baths or chilling of farmed fish on ice or submerged in water is used to dampen muscle movements by the fish and to delay the onset of post-death decay. However, it does not necessarily reduce sensibility to bread; indeed, the chilling process has been shown to elevate cortisol . In addition, reduced body temperature extends the time before fish lose consciousness. [62]
  • CO₂ narcosis
  • Exsanguination without stunning is a process in which fish are taken from the water, held still, and cut to the cause bleeding. According to references in Yue, [63] this can leave fish writhing for an average of four minutes, and some catfish still responds to noxious stimuli after more than 15 minutes.
  • Immersion in salt followed by gutting or other processing such as smoking is applied to eel. [64]

More humane methods

Proper stunning renders the fish unconscious immediately and for a sufficient period of time that the fish is killed in the slaughter process (eg through exsanguination) without regaining consciousness.

  • Percussive stunning involves rendering the unconscious fish with a blow on the head.
  • Electric stunning can be humane when a proper current is made to flow through the fish brain for a sufficient period of time. Electric stunning can be taken out of the water or while the fish is still in the water. The latter generally requires a greater current and may lead to operator safety issues. An advantage could be that in-watering can be relocated to unconscious without stressful handling or displacement. [65] However, improper stunning may not induce insensibility long enough to prevent the fish from enduring exsanguination while conscious. [60] Whether the optimal stunning parameters that researchers are determined by the industry is unknown. [65]

See also

  • Animal slaughter
  • Aquaculture of catfish
  • Aquaculture of salmonids
  • Aquaculture in Maine


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