Crocodile farm

crocodile farm or alligator farm is an establishment for breeding and raising crocodilians in order to produce crocodile and alligator meat , leather , and other goods. Many species of both alligators and crocodiles are farmed internationally. In Louisiana alone, alligator farming is a $ 60 to $ 70 million industry. [1]

History

Though not truly domesticated , alligators and crocodiles have been bred in at least the early 20th century. Most of these early businesses, such as St. Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park , established in 1893, were primarily known as crocodiles as a tourist attraction . [2] Only in the 1960s did commercial operations take place on the site. [3] This was largely driven by diminishing stocks of wild alligators, which had been hunted to extinction by that time.

As the American alligator Was Placed under official protection in 1967 (under a law PRECEDING the 1973 Endangered Species Act ), farming alligator skins for the est devenu viable option MOST FOR PRODUCING leather. [3] Mostly concentrated in the Southern US states of Louisiana , Florida , and Georgia , the practice quickly spread to other nations. Both the American and Chinese alligator are farmed intensively today, mostly within each species’ respective native region. The Nile Crocodile is found in all over Africa, and the saltwater crocodile is farmed in Australia and other areas. The smallercaimans are not necessarily enough to value the farm, but captive breeding of the spectacular caiman does take place in South America.

Farming alligators and crocodiles first Grew out of the demand for skins, [4] qui can fetch Hundreds of dollars each. But alligator and crocodile meat, long a part of Southern cooking(especially Cajun cuisine ) [5] and some Asian and African cuisines , began to be sold and shipped to markets unfamiliar with crocodilian meat. Chinese cooking is based traditional Chinese medicine considers the meat has to be curative food for colds and cancer prevention, ALTHOUGH there is no scientific evidence to this medium. [6] Crocodiles were eaten by Vietnamesewhile they were taboo and off limits for Chinese. Vietnamese women who married Chinese men adopted the Chinese taboo. [7] In Vietnam, skinning is performed on still livingcrocodiles. [8]

Effects

A common misconception is that crocodilians are an easy source of income and not difficult to care for in captivity; However, few crocodilian businesses are successful in the developing world. To offset the costs and to have a regular source of income, crocodilian facilities can add tourism; in this way alligator farming can assist native species and provide people with work. [9]

Alligator farming has minimal adverse effects on the environment, [10] and has at least two positive effects on alligator conservation. Because the product has a reliable stream of product, illegal poaching is reduced. Juvenile crocodilians can also be found in the wild to support a steady population. Wild alligator conservation also benefits from farming. Ranching businesses protect alligator habitats to take care of nesting sites. The fiscal incentive to keep a healthy environment for the environment and its environment. This can increase the government’s willingness to take care of crocodilian populations.

Animals other than crocodilians may benefit from a similar application of sustainable and ethical farming. [11]

Methods

Ranching, wild harvesting, and captive breeding are the three ways to obtain crocodilians recognized by the Convention on Endangered Species (CITES) and the Crocodile Specialist Group (CSG). [12] Alligators can be raised in captivity on farms or on ranches. Alligator farms breed alligators, Ranches incubate and rear hatchlings collected from the wild. Farms do collect eggs from the wild but they do not like to eat their eggs in the kitchen. [13] [14]Farming and ranching operations typically yield a certain percentage of juveniles in the wild, with a high survival rate, which increases overall survival rates. [15]

Crocodiles can be housed in a number of ways depending on the goals of the rearing facility. Large areas of a lake can be enclosed for many individuals or smaller areas. Due to the size and size of the animals, adult crocodiles need a substantial amount of space. [9] Tourism can bring additional revenue to crocodile rearing facilities, but they must be made safe for the public and the crocodiles, while maintaining an aesthetically pleasing environment. [16]This frequently depends on enclosures that can be easily cleaned without harming the animals. [9] If closed to public viewing, facilities have fewer requirements and can have a more practical design.

Alligators and crocodiles can be raised in captivity with “open cycle” or “closed cycle” methods. Open cycle refers to programs that are concerned with the wild population and are used to captive rearing as a means to supplement the wild populations. [9] [17] [18] Closed-cycle operations are primarily concerned with harvest. In closed cycle operations, adult females are kept in captivity, and the eggs are collected, incubated artificially, hatched, and juveniles are grown to a certain size and harvested. [18]Uncommercialization is often a success because of the cost of starting and managing the operations often outweighs the profits gained from products. Although the cost of operating is comparable to closed cycle, the goal of an open cycle operation is the overall health of the species, rather than economic profit. Captive breeding and ranching operations provide more incentives to protect natural populations and are important contributors to the success of crocodilian populations. [9] [16]

Concerns

Animal welfare

These include adenoviral hepatitis , mycoplasmosis , and chlamydiosis . Crocodiles suffer from stress in confined spaces. Most crocodilians keep a body temperature within 28 and 33 degrees Celsius. On farms, body temperatures can reach 36 degrees Celsius, which affects the animals’ immune system, and puts them at risk of various diseases. Another concern is for the cleanliness of the water in enclosures. [19]

Pests

Many alligator farms in the United States have experienced property damage from Sus scrofa (Feral Swine). [20]

Disease

Between 2001 and 2003, West Nile virus (WNV) was associated with alligators in Georgia , Florida , Louisiana , and Idaho . [21] The disease is transmitted by mosquitoes. [22] WNV has been found in Mexico at a crocodile farm in Ciudad del Carmen . [23]

The skin, most particularly the underside, of alligators and crocodiles is of commercial value, soils of the skin needs to be treated properly and effectively. [24]

Crocodilian diseases vary between species. Salmonellosis is common on some farms, and is acquired from infected food; it can also be spread by poor hygiene practices. Chlamydia , (specifically Chlamydophila psittaci ) can persist for years if not treated, for example with tetracycline . Crocodilians may acquire mycobacteria from infected meat. [25]

Crocodilians include crocodile pox, which is caused by Parapox virus, affecting hatchlings and juveniles. It causes a brown residue to form around the eyes, oral cavity, and tail. Caiman pox similarly causes white lesions around the eyes, oral cavity, and tail. Adenoviral Hepatitis causes organ failure and death. Mycoplasmosis causes polyarthritis and pneumonia in crocodilians under the age of three. Infected animals have swollen and are unable to move. Chlamydiosis has two forms that affects juveniles under one year of age. The first causes of hepatitis, resulting in death. The other causes of chronic bilateral conjunctivitis, resulting due to blindness. [26] Parasitic infections include tapeworm cysts, Trichinella spiralis nelsoni in the meat of Nile crocodiles in Zimbabwe, and Coccidia.

Escape

There have been reports of crocodiles escaping from farms during flooding. In 2013, approximately 15,000 crocodiles were released into the Limpopo River from flood gates at the nearby Rakwena Crocodile Farm. [27]

Popular culture

A crocodilian farm in Louisiana (in reality, Jamaica) is featured in the 1973 James Bond movie Live and Let Die . Tee Hee Johnson , one of the villains’ henchman, attempts to feed James Bond to the alligators and crocodiles.

In the second season of the Amazing Race Australia , teams had to visit a Cuban alligator farm and feed a wheelbarrow full of chum to a pen of alligators along with capturing an alligator with a stick and getting their next clue.

References

  1. Jump up^ Krause, Adam. “Inside the Dangerous (and Lucrative) Business of Alligator Farming” . Inc. Mansueto Ventures . Retrieved 28 August 2014.
  2. Jump up^ “Crocodiles and Alligator Farms” . Americana-alligator.com .
  3. ^ Jump up to:a Medley B , Cynthia (January 18, 1970). “One Way to Halt Poaching-Gator Farming” . The New York Times . Retrieved 2009-02-08 .
  4. Jump up^ Lyman, Rick (November 30, 1998). 20th “Anahuac Journal; Alligator Farmer Feeds Demand for All the Parts” Check |url=value ( help ) . The New York Times .
  5. Jump up^ Marcus, Frances Frank (April 4, 1993). “Louisiana Alligator, From Pies to Picante” . The New York Times .
  6. Jump up^ Chang, LT, and Olson, R .. Gilded Age, Gilded Cage. National Geographic Magazine, May 2008.
  7. Jump up^ Erica J. Peters (2012). Appetites and Aspirations in Vietnam: Food and Drink in the Long Nineteenth Century . Rowman Altamira. pp. 142-. ISBN  978-0-7591-2075-4 .
  8. Jump up^ Davis, Brett (Dec 22, 2016). “Crocodiles In Vietnam Skinned Alive In Fashion Service” . Forbes .
  9. ^ Jump up to:e Brien, Matthew; Cherkiss, Michael; Parry, Mark; Mazzotti, Frank. “Housing Crocodilians in Captivity: Considerations for Central America and Caribbean” (PDF) . University of Florida IFAS Extension . University of Florida . Retrieved 1 April 2015 .
  10. Jump up^ Lane, J. Thomas and Ruppert, Kathleen C., 1987. “Alternative Opportunities for Small Farms: Alligator Production Review” (PDF) . Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences . Retrieved October 23, 2013 .
  11. Jump up^ Moyle, Brendan (July 2013). Moyle, Brendan. “Conservation that’s more than skin-deep: alligator farming” . Biodiversity and Conservation . 22(8): 1663-1677. doi : 10.1007 / s10531-013-0501-9 . Retrieved October 25, 2013 . .
  12. Jump up^ “Control of operations that breed Appendix-I animal species for commercial purposes” . CITES . CITES . Retrieved 20 April 2015 .
  13. Jump up^ Heykoop, Jerry; Frechette, Darren (2001). “Gatornomics: Profitable and Sustainable Use of Alligators in the Southeastern United States”. Marine Resource Economics . 16 (2): 127-142.
  14. Jump up^ Blake, DK; Loveridge, JP (1975). “The role of commercial crocodile farming in crocodile conservation”. Biological Conservation . 8 (4): 261-272. doi : 10.1016 / 0006-3207 (75) 90004-x .
  15. Jump up^ Elsey, Ruth; McNease, Larry; Joanen, Ted (2001). “Louisiana’s alligator ranching program: a review and analysis of captive-raised juveniles”. in Crocodilian Biology and Evolution (Surrey Beaty & Sons, Chipping Norton): 426-441.
  16. ^ Jump up to:b Magnusson, WE (1984). “Economics, developing countries, and the captive propagation of crocodilians”. Wildlife Sociological Bulletin . 12 : 194-197.
  17. Jump up^ Cox, JH; Rahman, MM (1994). An assessment of crocodile resource potential in Bangladesh. Proceedings of the 12th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group . 1 (IUCN – The World Conservation Union Gland, Switzerland).
  18. ^ Jump up to:b Thorbjarnarson, John (1992). Crocodiles: An action plan for their conservation . Gland, Switzerland: UUCN.
  19. Jump up^ Dzoma, BM, Sejoe, S., Segwagwe, BV, E. June 2008. “Commercial crocodile farming in Botswana” . Tropical Animal Health and Production. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 377-381 . Retrieved October 22,2013 .
  20. Jump up^ Elsey, Ruth M., Sheep, Edward C. Jr, and Kinler, Noel., 2012. “Effects of Feral Swine (Sus scrofa) on Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) Nests in Louisiana” . Southeastern Naturalist . Eagle Hill Institute. pp. 205-218. Retrieved October 21, 2013 .
  21. Jump up^ Miller et al. 2003, Jacobson et al. 2005, Nevarez et al. 2005[ title missing ]
  22. Jump up^ Unlu, Isik, Kramer, L. Wayne, Roy, Alma F., Foil, Lane D., July 2010.“Detection of West Nile RNA Virus in Mosquitoes and Identification of Mosquito Blood Meals Collected at Alligator Farms in Louisiana” . Journal of Medical Entomology, . Entomological Society of America. pp. 625-633, . Retrieved October 25, 2013 .
  23. Jump up^ Farfan, Jose A. et al 2006. “Antibodies to West Nile Virus in Asymptomatic Mammals, Birds, and Reptiles in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico” . American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene . American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. pp. 908-914 . Retrieved October 26, 2013 .
  24. Jump up^ Dzoma, BM, Sejoe, S., Segwagwe, BV, E. June 2008. “Commercial crocodile farming in Botswana” . Tropical Animal Health and Production. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 377-381 . Retrieved October 20,2013 .
  25. Jump up^ Huchzermeyer, FW 1997 “Public health risks of ostrich and crocodile meat” (PDF) . Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz . Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute. pp. 599-604 . Retrieved October 22, 2013 .
  26. Jump up^ Huchzermeyer, FW 2002 “Diseases of farmed crocodiles and ostriches”(PDF) . Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz . Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute. pp. 265-276 . Retrieved October 22, 2013 .
  27. Jump up^ “South Africa police join hunt for 10,000 escaped crocodiles” . Reuters . 2013-01-25 . Retrieved 2015-10-09 .

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