Commercial fish feed

Manufactured feeds are an important part of modern commercial aquaculture , providing the balanced nutrition needed by farmed fish . The feeds, in the form of granules or pellets, provide the nutrition in a stable and concentrated form, enabling the fish to feed efficiently and grow to their full potential.

Many of the fish farmed more intensively around the world today are carnivorous, for example Atlantic salmon , trout , sea bass and turbot . In the development of modern aquaculture, starting in the 1970s, fishmeal and fish oil were key components of the feeds for these species. They are combined with other ingredients such as vegetable proteins, grain cereals, vitamins and minerals and formed into feed pellets. Wheat, for example, is widely used to bind the ingredients in the pellets.

Other forms of fish feed being white used include feeds Made Entirely with vegetable materials for species Such As carp , moist feeds preferred By Some species (Easier To make profit more difficulty to blind), and trash fish – that is fish caught and fed directly to larger species being raised in aquaculture pens.

Hatchery feeds

Specialized feeds are produced for fish hatcheries . In species such as salmon and trout, the newly hatched fry first feed their bags and then can be fed with starter feeds. Marine species Such As sea bass, sea bream, turbot and flounders consume the nutrition In Their yolk sacks During the first FEW days post hatching And Then are fed for Several weeks we live prey, [1] in the form of rotifers and brine shrimp(Artemia). Special feeds can be used to enrich the nutritional value of the prey. Rotifers are usually bred in the hatchery while brine shrimp are collected from the wild, eg salt lakes. Manufacture feed alternatives to brine shrimp are more widely available and offer greater flexibility in aquaculture.

Development of manufactured feeds

Until the end of World War II, most fish hatcheries (meat as usual) as a dietary staple for trout. In the early 1950s, John E. (Red) Hanson, while working for the New Mexico Game and Fish Department, began experimenting with dietary routine and dry pellet formulations. The first fish feed pellets were introduced at the Red River Hatchery near Taos . The pellets resulted in the production of fish production, and lead in the adoption of fish pellets in hatcheries. [2]

The development of dry pelleted fish feeds to date has two themes. One theme is one of improving digestibility and refining the balance of nutrients to match the needs of different species of fish. The other theme is to improve the sustainability of the ingredients used. This is being achieved by identifying additional sustainable sources of ingredients, in particular to reduce the need for fishmeal and fish oil. Improving the efficiency of feeding also contributes to sustainability.


Traditionally two of the most important ingredients have been fishmeal and fish oil . These are mainly of the processing of fish from the wild catches , which are usually not adapted to processing for human consumption. Fish sold for human consumption a higher price than those used to make fishmeal. The fishmeals are often referred to as The world’s largest reduction in the size of the Pacific, off the coast of Peru and Chile and is regulated by the governments of those countries. The North Atlantic is another important source of fish for fishmeal and fish oil. Many major suppliers belong to the International Fishmeal and Fish Oil Organization. [3]

Fishmeal is a brown, flour-like material made by specialist producers that cook, press, dry and grind the fish. The fish oil is an important source of energy, including the important long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA now linked to the health benefits associated with eating oily fish such as salmon and mackerel. Fish in general also are good sources of vitamins and minerals and are often recommended as part of a healthy diet by government food agencies. [4] [5] [6] [7]

Because the catches of wild fish can not be maintained, the supply of fish and fish stocks will continue to grow.

The global demand for fish from consumers around the world is increasing. Reasons include the growing population, rising average incomes and greater awareness of fish as part of a healthy diet. The yield from the wild catch can not be increased sustainably, therefore, in the opinion of observers such as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, aquaculture must fill the gap. Currently the supply of fish from aquaculture matches, according to FAO figures.

The current drive in research and development is enabling the production of fishmeal and fish with proteins and oils, while ensuring the fish continues to provide important benefits for consumers. [8] Other potential raw materials are also being explored. For example, the US biotechnology company BioTork is piloting the use of raw materials Such As unmarketable papayaand by-products from biodiesel Production to Produce Fish feed components, [9] as well as feeding agricultural waste to algae and fungi That factory Reviews some of the proteins and omega-3 oils needed for fish food. [10]The US biotechnology company Calysta and the UK / Danish biotech company Unibio opened small plants in the UK and Denmark to produce fish feed from natural gas in 2016. [11]

Modern fish feed

These fish feeds are made by grinding and mixing together such as fishmeal, vegetable proteins and binding agents such as wheat. Water is added and the resulting paste is extruded through holes in a metal plate. The diameter of the holes sets the diameter of the pellets, which can be seen from a millimeter to over a centimeter. As the feed is extracted to form pelletsof the required length. The pellets are dried and oils are added. Pellets et des produits du produit et des produits du produit et de la fabrication des pellets et des produits du produit et des produits du produit. The dry feed pellets are stable for relatively long periods, for convenient storage and distribution. Feeds are delivered in bulk, in large bags – usually one ton, or in 25 kilograms. Smaller quantities of specialist feeds are supplied for fish hatcheries. Biomar , [12] EWOS [13] and Skretting .

See also

  • Aquaculture of brine shrimp
  • Aquarium fish feed
  • John Halver – the father of fish nutrition
  • Shrimp mix
  • Skretting Aquaculture Research Center


  1. Jump up^
  2. Jump up^ Sigler JW and Sigler WF (1986)” The Great Basin Naturalist,46(4): 583-594.
  3. Jump up^ IFFO
  4. Jump up^ Washington State Department of Health
  5. Jump up^ Food Standards Agency, ArchivedUK2010-10-07 at theWayback Machine.
  6. Jump up^ American Hearts Association
  7. Jump up^ National Health Security Agency
  8. Jump up^ [1]
  9. Jump up^
  10. Jump up^
  11. Jump up^ The Page, Michael (2016-11-19). “Food made from natural gas will soon feed farm animals – and us” . New Scientist . Retrieved 2016-12-11 .
  12. Jump up^ Biomar Group
  13. Jump up^ EWOS ArchivedGroup2011-02-02 at theWayback Machine.

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