Aquaculture in South Korea

South Korea occupies the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. The total land mass of the country is 98,480 km 2 usable land is only 20% of the total and thus the population is concentrated around the coast. [2] [3] The Korean Peninsula is surrounded by the East, West and South Seas, a coast-line that extends for about 2,413 km. Endowed with an abundance of fisheries resources, 48.1 kg in 2005. [2]

Fishing in the United States in South Korea in recent years, and increased consumption of aquaculture products in the United States.

Extensive aquaculture has been practiced in Korea for several hundred years, but modern intensive aquaculture (mainly for shellfish and seaweed) did not emerge until the 1960s. [4]However, total annual aquaculture production was less than 100,000 tonnes in this period. Aquaculture production increased from 147,000 tonnes in 1971, reaching over 1.2 million tonnes by 2006. [2]

Cultured species

Current aquaculture production in South Korea is dominated by seaweeds , followed by molluscs and finfish . [2] [5]

Fishery products Tonnes [2] Percentage [2]
Seaweed 764,913 60.7
Shellfish 391,060 31.1
Finfish 91 123 15.2
Others 12,128 0.9
Total 1,259,274 100

Aquaculture in the sea has developed in a different way. [6]

  • East Coast – Because of simple coastal action and action, there are only land based cultures near the coast. Flatfish ( Paralichthys olivaceus ) and scallop ( Patinopecten yessoensis ) are the main species cultured in South Korea.
  • South Coast – There are a number of semi-enclosed bays, islands and estuaries with moderate tidal ranges. Archipelagic environment makes it an ideal place for installation of cages. Aquaculture production in south coast is much higher than production in east and west coast.
  • West Coast – Warm (up to 26 ° C) with high tidal estuarine environment ranks and well Developed tidal flat Enables crustacean and shellfish products in this area. Trials for the use of earthen ponds for finfish have been successful.

Seaweed

55% of aquaculture production in South Korea is encompassed by seaweed. [1] However, fish production is rapidly increasing. [6] Seaweed culture is mainly concentrated in South Korea where almost 90% of seaweed cultivation in South Korea takes place. Cultured seaweed species include sea ​​mustard ( Caulerpa sp. ), Laver ( Porphyra spp. ), Kelp ( Laminaria spp. ), Fusiform ( Hizikia fusiformis ), green wash ( Monostroma sp. ) And codium (Codium sp. ). [5] The seaweed brown Undaria dominates algal aquaculture production constituting 42% of the total wet weight. [7] Laver production is however the most valuable, totaling 65% of overall value. The production is estimated to be 217,559 tons (wet wt.) Which is equivalent to more than 10 billion sheets of dried wash. [2]

Shellfish

Molluscs are the second most important group of marine aquaculture products. The main species produced, including the oysters ( Crassostrea gigas and Pinctada fucata ), Korean mussel( Mytilus coruscus ), the sea ​​squirt red oyas ( Halocynthia roretzi ), the Japanese carpet shell ( Ruditapes philippinarum ), ark shells ( Anadara satowi and A. broughtonii ), cockles ( A. granosabisenensis and A. subcrenata ), Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis ) and abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai ). [5] Production of molluscs reached 391,060 tonnes in 2006, making up 31.1% of the total aquaculture production of South Korea. [2]

Oysters are considered the most important shellfish in the aquaculture industry of South Korea, which, in 2005, produced 251,706 tonnes of oysters. [8] [9] Approximately 90% of the Korean oysters come from farms located in small bays and off islands along the southern coast. [8] Oyster farming is highly popular, as it produces high profits. For example, in 2003, one oyster farming family worked on a $ 33,000 long-lines producing net profit of 33,000 US Dollars. [10]

Finfish

Marine finfish culture is dominated by halibut bastard ( Paralichthys olivaceus ), Korean rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli ), mullet , seabass , yellowtail , red seabream , black seabream , brown croaker and puffers . [5]

Finfish are the most important species in freshwater aquaculture ; Species in this group include trout , mud fish ( Clarias sp. ), Japanese eel ( Anguilla japonica ), tilapia , common carp , loach , colored carp , snakehead ( Channa sp. ), sweet fish , Korean bullhead ( Pelteobagrus fulvidraco ), goldfish and mountain trout . [5]

Crustacean

Crustacean culture is primarily concerned with two species of shrimp and some crabs . Fleshy prawn ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis ) and kuruma prawn ( Marsupenaeus japonicus ) are the most important species of shrimps that grow in the south of the peninsula. [5]

Trends and development

There have been deliberate efforts to reduce the production of such high-value fish species, as in South Korea. The government has been pursuing a long-term aquaculture development program through the expansion of areas for aquaculture and the development of both profitable and unexploited species. Tidal areas in the southern provinces have been designated for shellfish culture. The number of aquaculture will be reduced by 10% over the next five years, and new licenses will be issued for such products as wash, sea-mustard and “excessively-produced fishes”. [7] [11] Another reason for the slow down in growth is the loss of some aquaculture areas to industrial pollution, such as the case with oysters.

The Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MOMAF) plans to encourage the industry to reduce production costs so that it can compete favorably with its foreign counterparts. [12] Between the period of 1997 and 2003, aquaculture production of aquatic plants dropped by 30% and mussels by 75% [14]. On the other hand, such as olive flounder and black rockfish increased by 78% [14]. It has been developed by P. chinensis and P. japonicus, and the mitten-handed crabs, previously only cultured in China. As a result, crustacean production has increased by 48% between 1997 and 2003. [11]

Future directions

There has been a great increase in production of high value fish species, such as flounder and black rockfish during the last few years and a new interest in culturing penaeid shrimps . [12] The vision of South Korea is a restructured aquaculture industry with an optimal production system and enhanced competitiveness. While doing this, we will be able to do this, and we will be able to do this with you. [10] [13] Total funds invested were US $ 14.9

There is a growing concern that pollution might affect fishing and aquaculture production [14] due to the reclamation works and construction of industrial complexes in the southern and western coastal districts of the country. [5]

Recently, the integrated aquaculture management has created an alternate plan to overcome problems such as tide, typhoon and pollution created by human activities. [6] In this plan, the scope of ‘aquaculture ground’ extends to open areas. It is divided into three subdivisions; land-based aquaculture , polytrophic aquaculture , and offshore aquaculture , all of which are relatively new concepts in the Korean aquaculture industry. [6] [15]

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:b FAO (2005). “Aquaculture production, 2003”. Yearbook of Fishery Statistics . 2. 96 .
  2. ^ Jump up to:h Yoon, GH (2008). “Aquaculture in Korea”. Aquaculture News34 : 16-17.
  3. Jump up^ CIA (2003). The World Fact Book 2002 – Korea, South . Central Intelligence Agency.
  4. Jump up^ World Fishing and Aquaculture. “South Korea, World Fishing and Aquaculture, New Horizons” . Archived from the original on 2012-03-28 . Retrieved 2011-09-22 .
  5. ^ Jump up to:g FAO. National Aquaculture Sector Overview of the Republic of Korea National Fact Sheets . FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department . Retrieved 2011-09-21 .
  6. ^ Jump up to:d Lim, HK (2006). “Korean Aquaculture: Status and Future Directions”. National Fisheries Research and Development Institute . 12 : 4-8.
  7. ^ Jump up to:b OECD (2002). “Draft review of fisheries, Part 8: Korea”. OECD Report No. AGR / FI . 11 (8): 13.
  8. ^ Jump up to:b Choi, KS (2008). “Oyster Capture-based Aquaculture in the Republic of Korea”. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper . 508 : 271-286.
  9. Jump up^ Choi, KS “Current Status of Korean Shellfish Aquaculture” (PDF) . Retrieved 2011-09-19 .
  10. ^ Jump up to:b Choi, KS “Oyster Aquaculture in Korea” (PDF) . Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-12-08 . Retrieved 2011-09-18 .
  11. ^ Jump up to:b Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia-Pacific (2006). Regional review on aquaculture development. 3. Asia and the Pacific – 2005 . FAO Fisheries Circular. No. 1017/3. p. 97. ISSN  0429-9329 .
  12. ^ Jump up to:b Ministry of Maritime Affairs & Fisheries (MMAF) (1999). “Long term development plan for the Korean aquaculture industry of the 21st century”.
  13. Jump up^ FAO (2000a). “Report of the KMI / APRACA / FAO Regional Workshop on the Effects of Globalization and Deregulation on Marine Capture Fisheries in Asia and the Pacific, Pusan, Republic of Korea, 11-15 October 1999”. FAO Fisheries Report . 624 .
  14. Jump up^ FAO (2004-2011). Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profiles, Republic of Korea, Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profiles . FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department .
  15. Jump up^ Asianinfo. “Fisheries in Korea” . Retrieved 2011-09-20 .

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