Aquaculture in Madagascar

Aquaculture started to take off in Madagascar in the 1980s. The majority of Aquaculture in Madagascar includes the cultivation of sea ​​cucumber , seaweed , fish and shrimp . Aquaculture in Madagascar is being used to stimulate the world economy, increase the wages of fishermen and women in the area and improve the ocean water quality. Coastal regions of Madagascar are connected to the Indian Ocean’s marine resources as a source of food, income, and cultural identity. [1]Madagascar is the fourth-largest island in the world and consists of smaller islands. Madagascar is considered to be a biodiversity hotspot. Over 90 percent of its wildlife is not found anywhere else on Earth. In the Velondriake, a locally administered area (LMMA) in southwest Madagascar, laws of the United States, created by an official governing body, made up of 25 villages, called ‘dina’, to combat environmental degradation. This LMMA includes coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds, baobab forests and other threatened habitats. [2] [3] The Vezo, literally meaning ‘people who fish’ in the Malagasy language of the region, [4]are among Madagascar’s poorest. Making environmentally conscious efforts to boost the economy and raise incomes are top priorities for the LMMA.

Sea cucumbers

Sea cucumbers, considered a delicacy in Asia, play a crucial role in recycling nutrients from sediments on the ocean floor to form the bedrock of complex marine chains. Wild sea cucumber populations have dropped with many fishers using SCUBA gear to access those that are left. This practice has been banned in Madagascar. [5] A 2012 EU commissioned study of Madagascar’s sea cucumber trade showed 85% drop in the population since the fishery’s peak. [6]In the southeast of the island, Toliara’s marine institute uses new technology to produce young sea cucumbers to sell to fishers. Community farming groups then grow these animals in their own village. Because sea cucumbers feed on the ocean floor, the growing process requires no food, just pen maintenance. After nine months sea cucumbers to their US $ 2.50 each. This system links to one of the world’s largest markets, by US $ 30 per month, nearly doubling their monthly income. This system combines economic growth with environmental sustainability and supply and demand. Andavadoaka, founding village of the Velondriake, specifically managed marine area (LMMA),[7] [8] awarded by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), in 2007, for its innovative approach to conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Andavadoaka is home to the administrative center of the Velondriake Association, which was established in 2005 to manage the Velondriake LMMA. [9] [10]

Shrimp

Commercial shrimp farming was introduced to Madagascar in the early 1990s. International organizations and foreign investors have dominated this industry with financing, technical support and infrastructure development. Shrimp aquaculture in Madagascar has grown in importance over the years, and is responsible for the direct and indirect employment of over 3,000 people on the island.

Shrimp farmed in Madagascar are high quality and sell at relatively high prices. Today, the shrimp export industry has difficulty competing with Asia.

One species of shrimp, from Madagascar, prized by shrimp farmers is Penaeus monodon. It is renowned for its size and quality as well as for other countries. Penaeus monodon is valued by consumers for both its taste and texture. Therefore, we can not compete in export markets. It is not possible to compete in high-end niche markets, but it could be a market opportunity and a solution to the crisis. [11]

Marine Shrimp Aquaculture Development Master Plan Madagascar Shrimp Aquaculture Development Master Plan. These farm areas are composed of ponds, a hatchery, processing and packaging factory and storage facilities.

Seaweed

Seaweed farming is practiced in the northeastern region of the island in conjunction with the IBIS Madagascar company. Harvesting is done in a coastal area, usually by women and children.

Training and research

Training and research on aquaculture started in the 80s with the Marine Station of Toliara and enhanced by the implementation of the Fishery High Training Unit (UFSH). [12]The Marine Station, established in 1961 near the current Harbor of Toliara, especially the Great Reef Toliara (GRT). Since 1972, with the gradual creation of the current University of Toliara, research has diversified and included fisheries. Several researchers and technicians have been trained, but at the time the need is more academic and pedagogical. With the UFSH project funded by FAO, it was extended to aquaculture. 40 fisheries scientists Engineers were trained with several specialties including fishery and aquaculture. Most of these engineers have the team of the Ministry for Fisheries and Agriculture, another contributor to the creation and development of the first shrimp farms in Madagascar (currently grouped in UNIMA).[13]new scientists, managers and aquaculture, and new fisheries scientists Engineers (effective training of 20 new engineers in 2013). Both research and training have combined their structure to create in 1993, the current IH.SM. Since 1993, all training and research in fisheries and aquaculture are being provided by this Institute. With the adoption of the LMD system by the Universities of Madagascar, (1) License of the Sea and Littoral which includes Biodiversity-Environment and Fisheries and Aquaculture options; (2) PhD in Applied Oceanography and several specializations and (3) PhD in Applied Oceanography. Research in this field is now carried out by more than 30 researchers (PhD) and several PhD research students. In recent years, skill levels in the Madagascar aquaculture industry have considerably improved. This report has been produced by the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources in its annual report. The implementation of non-profit NGOs, such as MIDEM, which has become an integral part of the islands has also increased the effectiveness of the development of fisheries and aquaculture training in Madagascar. These NGOs focus on their work on marine aquaculture. The Independent Mission for Development and Education in Madagascar (MIDEM) is an open, non-profit NGO in Madagascar. Malagasy population stricken by extreme poverty and social injustice on the East coast of Madagascar. MIDEM’s mission is to improve livelihoods by implementing projects on education, rural development, fish farming, entrepreneurship and social development.[14]

Legislation and administration

Marine farmers usually look for sheltered and unpolluted waters rich in nutrients. These topics are also desirable for other purposes. In the late 1990s, demand for coastal aquaculture space. Aquaculture with the regional councils. By early 2000, farmers / fishers and NGOs were operating with inadequate regulations for managing the coast in a sustainable way. This lack of regulation leads to the creation of locally managed marine areas (LMMA). [15] There are however, few regulations limiting aquaculture in Madagascar, and of the few, even less are enforced. [16]

References

  1. Jump up^ Blue Ventures. (2013) “Discovery Through Aquaculture.”
  2. Jump up^ Harris A. (2007) ‘To live with the sea’ Development of the Community-managed Velondriake Protected Area network. Madagascar Conservation & Development Vol.2, Issue 1: 43-49. http://blueventures.org/downloads/bv-research-report-2007-mcd-harris-velondriake.pdf
  3. Jump up^ Cripps G & Harris A (2009) Community creation and management of the Velondriake marine protected area. www.blueventures.org ^ Andriamalala G & Gardner C (2010) The use of dina as a tool for governance of natural resources: lessons from Velondriake, southwest Madagascar. “Tropical Conservation Science” Vol. 3 (4): 447-472.
  4. Jump up^ Rita Astuti (1985). “The Vezo Are Not a Kind of People”: Identity, Difference, and “Ethnicity” among a Fishing People of Western Madagascar. “American Ethnologist 22 (3): 464-482.doi: 10.1525 / ae.1995.22.3.02a00010. ISSN 0094-0496
  5. Jump up^ National Geographic, Posted by Guest Blogger in Ocean Views on June 13, 2013.http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2013/06/13/farming-sea-cucumbers-in-madagascar-for-economic-hope -and-conservation /
  6. Jump up^http://media.wix.com/ugd/19606a_0956a09e0dc8f0f6495088d1005a5fec.pdf
  7. Jump up^ Harris A. (2007) ‘To live with the sea’ Development of the Community-managed Velondriake Protected Area network. Madagascar Conservation & Development Vol.2, Issue 1: 43-49. http://blueventures.org/downloads/bv-research-report-2007-mcd-harris-velondriake.pdf
  8. Jump up^ Cripps G & Harris A (2009) Community creation and management of the Velondriake marine protected area. www.blueventures.org ^ Andriamalala G & Gardner C (2010) The use of dina as a tool for governance of natural resources: lessons from Velondriake, southwest Madagascar. “Tropical Conservation Science” Vol. 3 (4): 447-472.
  9. Jump up^ A Department of Economic and Social Affairs. “Village of Andavadoaka, Madagascar: Marine Reserves for Octopus.” Chapter in “Innovation for Sustainable Development: Local Case Studies from Africa.”
  10. Jump up^ The Village of Andavadoaka, Madagascar – Equator Initiative
  11. Jump up^http://www.unep.ch/etb/initiatives/Executive%20Summaries%20and%20briefs/Madagascar%20Ten%20Pager.pdfIntegrated Assessment of Trade-related Policies and Biological Diversity in the Agricultural Sector in Madagascar
  12. Jump up^ RABENEVANANA, MW and RALIJAONA, C. HALIEUTICAL TRAINING IN MADAGASCAR. http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/ab825f/AB825F14.htm
  13. Jump up^ “IH.SM” . www.ihsm.mg . Retrieved 2016-06-14 .
  14. Jump up^ Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia-Pacific. (NACA) (2013) FK Norway South-South Aquaculture Professional Exchange Program.
  15. Jump up^ Harris A. (2007) ‘To live with the sea’ Development of the Community-managed Velondriake Protected Area network. Madagascar Conservation & Development Vol.2, Issue 1: 43-49. http://blueventures.org/downloads/bv-research-report-2007-mcd-harris-velondriake.pdf
  16. Jump up^ National Geographic, Posted by Guest Blogger in Ocean Views on June 13, 2013.http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2013/06/13/farming-sea-cucumbers-in-madagascar-for-economic-hope -and-conservation /

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