Aquaculture in Canada

Aquaculture

Aquaculture is the farming of fish , shellfish or aquatic plants in either fresh or saltwater, or both. [1] The farmed animals or plants are cared for under a controlled environment to ensure optimum growth, success and profit . When They Have atteint year Appropriate size (Often ounce They reach maturity ), They Are harvested, processed, and shipped to markets to be sold. [2] Aquaculture is practiced in China, where the population is high stakes and part of their everyday diet.

Aquaculture in Canada plays a prominent role in Canada’s ecological, social and economic stage. [3] With Canada having the world’s longest coastline, [4] aquaculture is an obvious choice for Canada. Many different kinds of fish are farmed in Canada qui helps to Implement ecological sustainability Among Many different kinds of fish Such As Atlantic Salmon , Arctic Char , Mussels , oysters and Rainbow Trout . [5]

Economic Value of Aquaculture in Canada

Aquaculture provides a significant amount of income for the Canadian economy. Seafood is Canada’s single largest exported food commodity, exporting 85% of production, making Canada’s seventh largest seafood exporter in the world. [6] In 1986, Canadian aquaculture production amounted to only 10,488 tonnes, valued at $ 35 million, [7] and then in 2009 it had a value of $ 800 million, 69% of which was exported. British Columbia is the fourth largest producer of salmon in the world and is Canada’s leader in aquaculture production with 52.3% of total production value, followed by New Brunswickwith 20.7% in 2009. The main species of fish farmed in Canada, with 70.5% of all fish in aquaculture followed by mussels with 15.1%. Aquaculture makes a significant contribution to Canada’s economy totaling $ 2.1 trillion in revenue in Canada in 2009. The total gross domestic product of Canada totaled $ 1,005,180,000 in 2009 and $ 14,495,000 in total employment in Canada. [8]the value accumulated for aquaculture is exceptionally important for the members employed in this industry. Over 90% of all jobs (both direct and indirect) are located in rural, coastal, and Aboriginal communities. Aquaculture in Canada has brought to revitalize both social and economic factors in these small communities. [9] Over 8,000 Canadians are directly employed in aquaculture – most of them full-time. The aquaculture supply and services sector creates an additional 8,000 jobs. Two-thirds of all workers are under the age of 35. [10]

Output by Province in 2009 percentage
British Columbia 52.3%
New Brunswick 20.7%
Newfoundland 11.7%
Nova Scotia 7.7%
PEI 3.9%
Ontario 1.2%
Prairie 0.7%

[11]

Output by Species percentage
Salmon 70.5%
Mussels 15.1%
Trout 5.8%
Oysters 5.5%
Other Finfish 1.6%
clams 1.1%
Other Shellfish 0.4%

[12]

Technology Used in Aquaculture

To reduce the environmental impact of aquaculture and especially of salmon farming , researches are being conducted to find alternatives to existing technologies. For the time being the marine net-pens is the only technology that dominates the aquaculture system in Canada. Lately, new alternatives such as closed-containment systemshave generated lots of interest. Culturing fish in a closed environment not only to help fishers but also to improve the quality of fish. Closed containment systems could reduce the environmental impact of salmon farming industry’s current practices. Some of the benefits of these systems are: reduced fish excerpts, minimized predator interactions, reduced disease transmission, lower feed inputs, higher stocking densities, and improved waste management capabilities. [13]

[14]

Conventional net pen or cage aquaculture

Canada has been using the net pen system since the 1970s. [15]Net pen, or cage, technology started to be used seriously in Canada in the early 1980s in New Brunswick when joint government / private projects introduced cage technology from Norway. Cage culture started seriously in BC in the late 1980s. Smaller scale cage culture developed in freshwaters as well, including Georgian Bay, Ontario and Lake Diefenbaker, Sask. and BC The oldest operating cage farm in Canada is actually in Georgian Bay. The conventional net-pen is an open mesh that is suspended within a framework of steel, wood or plastic, which floats on the surface and held in place by down-haul weights. The arrangement of the cages (net pens) varies considerably. On Canada’s east coast, the typical cages are circular and constructed of high density poly pipe (HDPE). The cages are 60m to 150m in circumference and moored individually within a grid system. On the west coast the cages are often steel with 8 to 24 cages in a group, half on each side of a main walkway. The cages are typically 15m to 30m across and 15m to 30m deep. Natural currents bring fresh, oxygenated water to the net pens and carry away soluble waste. The solid wasteFecal material and uneaten feed to the bottom. Note that the amount of unpaid food is negligible because of the farmers, which is typically about 60% of their production cost.

[16]

Closed-containment systems with rigid walls

This system is the first alternative culture system. Named SARGO ™ Fin Farm System , the system was established in 1994 for intensive finfish production in both marine and freshwater environment. [17] The system consists of six circular bags that are made of a heavy-gauge plastic installed in a steel frame floating surface and held in place by the same way as the net-pens. Electrical upwelling pumps in the bags, and portable liquid oxygen tanks are used to provide oxygen to the cultured fish. A specially designed product is used to exit the waste-water and the marine environment untreated. [18] [19]

Closed-contained systems with flexible walls

Closed-contained systems with flexible walls, another alternative technology developed by the SEA Technologies , consists of flexible round enclosures made of a waterproof heavy-gauge polyvinyl chloride. These bags are suspended in the water from a flotation system. SEA systems operate on a flow-through basis. Regarding the waste management, Future SEA has also developed a patent, based on a double drain concept to trap the waste. While, the water is discharged from the upper part of the tank, the waste water is collected from the concentric drain at the bottom of the tank. Even though the Future SEA claims that this waste trap can eliminate 75% of solids, it is still a new technology that needs further testing at commercial scales.[20]

[21]

Land-based technologies

Land-based systems unlike the other technologies operate on land. There are two types of land-based systems.

Land-based saltwater flow-through system

The land-based saltwater flow-through system is mainly based on the Atlantic salmon culture. Atlantic salmon is cultured in circular concrete tanks where the fresh seawater is continuously pumped into the tank and unloaded into the untreated channel. Like in the floating bag system, portable oxygen tanks provide additional oxygen to the fish. [22]

Land-based freshwater recirculating system

The land-based freshwater recirculating system similar to the saltwater flow-through system consists of a series of circular concrete tanks; however, it is built inside a warehouse. The water is pumped into the tanks from an on-site freshwater well, and almost 99% of the water is recirculated back to system through a mechanical and bio-filtration process . The solid waste is collected in a holding tank to be used as fertilizer for plants. [23] West Creek Aquaculture in BC, Namgis in Northern Vancouver Island, Watersong Farms in Manitoba, and Sustainable Blue in Nova Scotia.

Environmental Impacts of Aquaculture

It is not uncommon for farmed salmon to escape from the net they are contained in while living in open waters. This can occur for a number of different reasons, the most common causes being: [24]

  • infrastructure failure (eg a result of extreme weather damage)
  • boat operations (eg collisions and propeller damage)
  • predation (eg seals , sea ​​lions )
  • vandalism
  • fish handling errors
  • technical deficiencies (inadequate or damaged parts in cage systems) [25]

When farmed salmon escapes into the wild, interbreedingbetween wild and farmed salmon can occur in New Brunswick. This may be a difference in the genetic diversity of the original genetic stocks of salmon still exist, which is not the case in New Brunswick where the genetic diversity has been seriously compromised by many decades of government stocking programs. In BC, the most important of these are salmon salmon, which are not exclusively a different species of salmon, but a different genus and interbreeding is biologically impossible. Any escaped salmon in BC are reported to the provincial ministry of agriculture. The number of escapes has been greatly reduced and is currently quite small. Despite reports to the contrary, There is no credible scientific evidence of adverse impacts on native fish due to transmission of parasites, including sea lice, from farmed fish to wild fish. The young salmon are freshwater when they are transferred into the water (freshwater only). Fish populations are then increased to populations where, if untreated, they can increase to epidemic levels due to the relatively high densities of fish in the cages. The farmers prevent this from happening by using approved therapeutants to control the sea lice numbers. These products are particularly useful for the detection of fauna, and they are also useful as fish feeders, crabs and their relatives and filter feeders.

References

  1. Jump up^ Robson, PA Salmon Farming – the whole story, 2006
  2. Jump up^ Matthews, R, “Aquaculture in Canada” 2006
  3. Jump up^ Government of Canada – ArchivedFisheries & Oceans CanadaMarch 21, 2011, at theWayback Machine.
  4. Jump up^ Canadian Aquaculture – Industry Alliance
  5. Jump up^ “Aquaculture Statistics, Facts and Figures” . Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015 . Retrieved 28 November 2015 .
  6. Jump up^ Government of Canada – Aquaculture in Canada
  7. Jump up^ Canadian Aquaculture – Industry Alliance
  8. Jump up^ EtaCanadaonline.com
  9. Jump up^ Government of Canada – Aquaculture in Canada
  10. Jump up^ Canadian Aquaculture – Industry Alliance
  11. Jump up^ “Archived copy” . Archived from the original on 2008-03-19 . Retrieved 2008-03-29 .
  12. Jump up^ “Archived copy” . Archived from the original on 2008-03-19 . Retrieved 2008-03-29 .
  13. Jump up^ Ayer, NW & Tyedmers, PH Journal of Cleaner Production, 2008
  14. Jump up^ “Archived copy” . Archived from the original on 2008-03-19 . Retrieved 2008-03-29 .
  15. Jump up^ Government of Canada – Fisheries & Oceans Canada
  16. Jump up^ “Archived copy” . Archived from the original on 2012-04-03 . Retrieved 2011-08-04 .
  17. Jump up^ Mariculture Systems, Inc. 2007. SARGOTM End Farms. Investment prospectus and technical specifications, p.105
  18. Jump up^ Ayer, NW & Tyedmers, PH Journal of Cleaner Production, 2008
  19. Jump up^ Masser, MP Bridger, CJ A review of cage aquaculture: North America. In M. Halwart, D. Soto and JR Arthur (eds). Cage Aquaculture – Regional reviews and global overview, pp.102-125. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 498. 2007
  20. Jump up^ Government of Canada – Fisheries & Oceans Canada
  21. Jump up^ [1]
  22. Jump up^ Ayer, NW & Tyedmers, PH Journal of Cleaner Production, 2008
  23. Jump up^ Ayer, NW & Tyedmers, PH Journal of Cleaner Production, 2008
  24. Jump up^ http://www2.gov.bc.ca/Government of British Columbia
  25. Jump up^ Government of British Columbia

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