Aquaculture  is the breeding of  fish  ,  crustaceans  ,  molluscs  ,  aquatic plants,  algae  and other aquatic organisms. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be compared to  the commercial fishery , which is wild fish harvesting. [2]  It is less commonly spelled  aquaculture  [3], and is also known as  aquafarming  . The mariculture refers to aquaculture in marine environments and in underwater habitats.

According   to the  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)  , aquaculture means “the farming of aquatic organisms, including fish, shellfish, crustaceans and aquatic plants.” Breeding involves some form of intervention in the breeding process. , feeding, protection against predators, etc. Agriculture also involves the individual or collective ownership of the cultivated stock. ”  [4] Reported production by global aquaculture operations in 2014 provided more than half of the fish and seafood consumed directly by humans. [5]  [6]  However, there are problems with the reliability of reported figures. [7] In addition, in current aquaculture practice, the products of several pounds of wild fish are used to produce a pound of fish that is  piscivorous  such as  salmon  . [8]

Special types include aquaculture  fish farming  ,  shrimp farming  , the  oyster  , the  mariculture  , the  algiculture  (such as  seaweed farming  ) and cultivation of  ornamental fish  . Particular methods include  aquaponics  and integrated multi –  trophic  aquaculture   , both of which incorporate fish farming and aquatic plant cultivation.

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Industrial Aquaculture

Aquaculture is the culture of the natural product of water (fish, crustaceans, algae and other aquatic organisms). The term is distinguished from fishing by the idea of ​​an active human effort to maintain or increase the number of organisms involved, as opposed to simply taking them into the wild. Aquaculture include subsets mariculture (aquaculture in the ocean); Algaculture (the production of kelp / seaweed and other algae); Fish farming (raising fish – cat, tilapia and milkfish in freshwater and brackish ponds or in salmon ponds); and culture of cultured pearls. Extensive aquaculture is based on local photosynthetic production while intensive aquaculture is based on fish fed with an external food supply.

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