Aquaculture of brine shrimp

Brine shrimp have the ability to produce dormant eggs, known as cysts . This is the extensive use of brine shrimp in aquaculture . The cysts can be stored for long periods of time and hatched on the market for larval fish and crustaceans . [1]

From cysts, bream shrimp nauplii can readily be used to feed to fish and crustacean larvae just after one-day incubation . Instar I (the nauplii) and instar II nauplii (with the brine) rich, and of small size which makes them suitable for feeding fish and crustacean larvae live or after drying.

Diet

In their first stage of development, brine shrimp nauplii do not feed but consume their own energy reserves stored in the cyst. [2] Wild brine shrimp eat microscopic planktonic algae . Cultured brine shrimp can also be fed particulate foods including yeast , wheat flour , soybean powder or egg yolk . [3]

Reproduction

Adult female brine shrimp ovulate approximately every 140 hours. In favorable conditions, the female brine shrimp can produce eggs that almost immediately hatch. While in extreme conditions, such as low oxygen level or salinity above 150 ‰, female brine shrimp produces eggs with a chorion coating which has a brown color. These eggs, also known as cysts, are metabolically inactive and can remain in total oxygen-free conditions, even at temperatures below freezing. This characteristic is called cryptobiosis , meaning “hidden life”. While in cryptobiosis, brine shrimp eggs can survive temperatures of liquid air(-190 ° C or -310.0 ° F) and a small percentage can survive above boiling temperature (105 ° C or 221 ° F) for up to two hours. [4] Once in briny (salt) water (> 5 ‰), the eggs hatch within a few hours. The nauplii , or larvae, are less than 0.4 mm in length when they first hatch. Brine shrimp have a biological life cycle of one year.

Nutritional benefits

Since no artificial feed formulation is still available to completely substitute for brine shrimp, feeding live prey to young fish and crustacean larvae still remains essential in commercial hatchery operation. The nutritional properties of newly hatched brine are high in lipids and unsaturated fatty acids (but low in calcium ). [5] Dried brine shrimp nauplii contain 37% -71% protein, 12% -30% lipid, 11% -23% carbohydrate, and 4% -21% ash. [6]

The fatty acid compositions of the skin are highly sensitive. Also, the nutritional quality of commercially available strains is relatively poor in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20: 5n-3), and especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22: 6n-3). Since thesis are critical components for the larvae development, it is common practice to feed this live prey with emulsions of marine oils That are rich in the EPA and DHA, qui est Referred have enrichment processes. [1]

Industrial hatchery

Since the development of commercial marine fish culture in the late 1970s, the demand for brine shrimp cysts has increased to a few tons to approximately 800 tons per annum, representing approximately 40% of the total aquaculture demand for feeds for early stages. The price of the cysts varies during the last a few decades depending on the quality of the cysts. [2] During the last 25 years, the Great Salt Lake in the United States has been the major supplier of brine shrimp shrimps to the world aquaculture industry and the subject of numerous speculations regarding its ability to sustain a growing aquaculture industry. [7]However, due to the unpredictable fluctuation of the cyst yield from Great Salt Lake, there are other sites for cyst production, such as Lake Urmia in Iran, Aibi Lake in China, Bolshoye Yarovoye in Siberia , Kara Bogaz Gol in Turkmenistan , and several lakes in Kazakhstan . [7]

Although hatchery process of brine shrimp are relatively simple and easy to operate, a series of factors need to be controlled and monitored to make optimal use of the cysts. The critical factors are light, temperature, salinity , oxygen level, pH and cyst density, which varies between different strands. [8] Hatching quality, hatching percentage or hatching synchrony (time between first and last hatching cysts).

There are six stages in the hatching and development of brine shrimp industrial hatchery. [1]

After hatching, the brine shrimp shrimp should be separated from the hatching wastes. After switching off the aeration in the hatching tank, the tanks will float and sink into the bottom of the tank. The nauplii are further concentrated in a concentrator and separated from the cysts. The enrichment process, if needed, occurs after the nauplii develop a digestive tract . The three main enrichment approaches are listed below. [1]

Notes

  1. ^ Jump up to:d Martin Daintith (1996). Rotifers and Artemia for Marine Aquaculture: a Training Guide . University of Tasmania . OCLC  222006176 .
  2. ^ Jump up to:b P. Sorgeloos; P. Dhert; P. Candreva (2001). “Use of brine shrimp,Artemia spp., In marine larval fish” (PDF) . Aquaculture . 200 : 147-159. doi : 10.1016 / s0044-8486 (01) 00698-6 .
  3. Jump up^ Kai Schumann (August 10, 1997). ” Artemia (Brine Shrimp) FAQ 1.1″ . Portland State University . Archived from the original on August 14, 2007 . Retrieved March 13, 2010 .
  4. Jump up^ Whitey Hitchcock. “Brine shrimp” . Clinton High School Science. Archived from the original on September 3, 2010 . Retrieved March 13,2010 .
  5. Jump up^ P. Light; DA Bengtson; KL Simpson; P. Sorgeloos (1986). “The use and nutritional value of Artemia as a food source”. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review . 24 : 521-623.
  6. Jump up^ DA Bengtson; P. Léger; P. Sorgeloos (1991). “Use of Artemia as a Food Source for Aquaculture”. In RA Browne; P. Sorgeloos; CNA Trotman. ArtemiaBiology . Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press . pp. 255-285. ISBN  978-0-8493-6729-8 .
  7. ^ Jump up to:b P. Lavens; P. Sorgeloos (2000). “The history, present stats and prospects of the availability of Artemia cysts for aquaculture.” Aquaculture . 181 : 397-403. doi : 10.1016 / s0044-8486 (99) 00233-1 .
  8. Jump up^ Paul Vanhaecke; Patrick Sorgeloos (1983). “International study onArtemia,” Hatching data for commercial sources of brine shrimp cysts and re-evaluation of the “hatching efficiency” concept. Aquaculture . 30 (1-4): 43-52. doi : 10.1016 / 0044-8486 (83) 90150-3 .

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